# Fluid Mechanics

## The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involving velocity, pressure, density and temperature as functions of space and time.

### Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity Online Converter

Convert between dynamic or absolute viscosity units - Poiseuille, Poise, centPoise and more.

### Acetone - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of acetone at temperatures ranging from -95 to 275 °C (-138 to 530 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Acetone - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of acetone, also called 2-propanone, dimethyl ketone and pyroacetic acid. Phase diagram included.

### Air - Composition and Molecular Weight

Dry air is a mechanical mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, argon and several other gases in minor amounts.

### Air - Density and Specific Volume vs. Altitude

Density and specific volume of air varies with elevation above sea level.

### Air - Density vs. Pressure and Temperatures

Air density at pressure ranging 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psi) and constant selected temperatures.

### Air - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficients of air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600 °C (-140 to 2900 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Air - Diffusion Coefficients of Gases in Excess of Air

Diffusion coefficients (D_{12}) for gases in large excess of air at temperatures ranging 0 - 400 °C.

### Air - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables with dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity for air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600°C (-150 to 2900°F) and at pressures ranging 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.

### Air - Molecular Weight and Composition

Dry air is a mixture of gases where the average molecular weight (or molar mass) can be calculated by adding the weight of each component.

### Air - Prandtl Number

Prandtl number for air vs. temperature and pressure.

### Air - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Properties of air change along the boiling and condensation curves (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An air phase diagram included.

### Air - Specific Heat vs. Pressure at Constant Temperature

Figures and tables with isobaric (Cp) and isochoric (Cv) specific heat of air at constant temperature and pressure ranging 0.01 to 10000 bara.

### Air - Specific Heat vs. Temperature at Constant Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing specific heat (Cp and Cv) of dry air vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.

### Air - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing air thermal conductivity vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.

### Air - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables withdry air thermal diffusivity vs. temperarure and pressure. SI and Imperial units.

### Air - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of air at different temperatures - density, viscosity, critical temperature and pressure, triple point, enthalpi and entropi, thermal conductivity and diffusivity and more.

### Air Duct Components - Minor Dynamic Loss Coefficients

Minor loss (pressure or head loss) coefficients for air duct components.

### Ammonia - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 1000 bara (14.5 - 14500 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.

### Ammonia - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and table with changes in Prandtl number for ammonia with changes in temperature and pressure.

### Ammonia - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of liquid and gaseous ammonia changes along the boiling/condensation curve (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An ammonia phase diagram are included.

### Ammonia - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat, C_{P} and C_{V}, of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 100 bara (14.5 - 1450 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.

### Ammonia - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous ammonia at temperatures ranging -70 to 425 °C (-100 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Ammonia - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Ammonia. Phase diagram included.

### Ammonia Gas - Density vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ammonia for temperatures ranging -50 to 425 °C (-50 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Archimedes' Law

Forces acting on bodies submerged in fluids.

### Argon - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of argon, Ar, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Baume's Hydrometer

Liquid density with Degree Baume vs. Specific Gravity.

### Benzene - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing density and specific weight of benzene, C_{6}H_{6}, at temperatures ranging from 5 to 325 °C (42 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Benzene - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of benzene, C_{6}H_{6}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Benzene - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of benzene, also called benzol. Phase diagram included.

### Bernoulli Equation

Conservation of energy in a non-viscous, incompressible fluid at steady flow.

### Bulk Modulus and Fluid Elasticity

Introduction to - and definition of - Bulk Modulus Elasticity commonly used to characterize the compressibility of fluids.

### Buoyancy

Buoyancy is the resultant force acting on a submerged body.

### Butane - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of liquid and gaseous butane, C_{4}H_{10}, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Butane - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables with dynamic and kinematic viscosity of liquid and gaseous butane, C_{4}H_{10}, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Butane - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables showing specific heat, Cp and Cv, of gasous and liquid butane, C_{4}H_{10}, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Butane - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous butane, C_{4}H_{10}, at varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Capillarity

Capillarity - or capillary action - is the ability of a narrow tube to draw a liquid upwards against the force of gravity.

### Carbon dioxide - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of carbon dioxide, CO_{2}, at temperatures ranging from -50 to 775 °C (-50 to 1400 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Carbon Dioxide - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of carbon dioxide, CO_{2}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Carbon dioxide - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and table with changes in Prandtl number for carbon dioxide with changes in temperature and pressure.

### Carbon dioxide - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of carbon dioxide, CO_{2}, at temperatures ranging from -50 to 775 °C (-50 to 1400 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Carbon Dioxide - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of carbon dioxide. Phase diagram included.

### Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Rooms Occupied with People

Carbon dioxide concentration in a room may indicate air quality and ventilation system efficiency.

### Carbon Monoxide - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of carbon monoxide, CO, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Cauchy Number

Introduction to the Cauchy Number.

### Cavitation

Cavitation occurs in fluid flow systems where the local static pressures are below the fluids vapor pressure.

### Cavitation Number

An introduction and definition of the Cavitation Number.

### Center of Gravity and Buoyancy

Stability - the center of gravity vs. the center of buoyancy.

### Chezys Conduit Flow Equation

Calculating volume flow and velcity in open conduits.

### Colebrook Equation

Friction loss coefficients in pipes, tubes and ducts.

### Compressible Gas Flow - Entropy

Calculating the entropy in a compressible gas flow.

### Compression and Expansion of Gases

Isothermal and isentropic gas compression and expansion processes.

### Conservation of Mass

The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass can neither be created or destroyed.

### Darcy-Weisbach Equation - Major Pressure and Head Loss due to Friction

The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to calculate the major pressure and head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes or tubes.

### Density vs. Specific Weight and Specific Gravity

An introduction to density, specific weight and specific gravity.

### Drag Coefficient

The drag coefficient quantifies the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment.

### Dynamic (Absolute) Viscosity - Converting Chart

Convert dynamic viscosity values between units like *Poiseuille - Poise - centiPoise* and more.

### Dynamic Pressure

Dynamic pressure is the kinetic energy per unit volume of a fluid in movement.

### Energy and Hydraulic Grade Line

The hydraulic grade line and the energy line are graphical presentations of the Bernoulli equation.

### Energy Equation - Pressure Loss vs. Head Loss

Calculate pressure loss - or head loss - in ducts, pipes or tubes.

### Equations in Fluid Mechanics

Equations used in fluid mechanics - like Bernoulli, conservation of energy, conservation of mass, pressure, Navier-Stokes, ideal gas law, Euler equations, Laplace equations, Darcy-Weisbach Equation and more.

### Equivalent Length vs. Minor Pressure Head Loss in Pipe and Duct Components

Minor pressure and head loss in pipes vs. equivalent length in tubes and duct systems.

### Ethane - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ethane, C_{2}H_{6}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Ethane - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of ethane, C_{2}H_{6}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Ethane - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of ethane, C_{2}H_{6}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

### Ethanol - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of ethanol, C_{2}H_{5}OH, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Ethanol - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ethanol at temperatures ranging from -25 to 325 °C (-10 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Ethanol - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables showing specific heat , Cp and Cv, of gasous and liquid ethanol at temperatures ranging from -25 to 325 °C (-10 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Ethanol - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethanol (also called alcohol or ethyl alcohol). Phase diagram included.

### Ethylene - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ethylene, C_{2}H_{4}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Ethylene - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of ethylene, C_{2}H_{4}, also called ethene or acetene, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Ethylene - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of ethylene, also called ethene or acetene, C_{2}H_{4}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Ethylene - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethylene, also called ethene, acetene and olefiant gas. Phase diagram included.

### Euler Number

Introduction to the Euler Number used in fluid mechanics.

###
Flow Coefficient *C*_{v} vs. Flow Factor *K*_{v}

_{v}

_{v}

Comparing flow coefficients *C _{v}* to flow factors

*K*

_{v}.

### Flow Section Channels - Geometric Relationships

Geometric relationships like area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic diameter.

### Fluid Flow - Entrance Length and Developed Flow

The entrance length is the length in a tube or duct after an obstruction - until the flow velocity profile is fully developed.

### Fluid Flow - Equation of Continuity

The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation.

### Fluid Flow - Equivalent Diameter

Convert rectangular and oval duct geometry to a equivalent circular diameter - online calculator with imperial and SI-units.

### Fluid Flow - Euler Equations

The behavior of ideal compressible gas can be described with Euler equations.

### Fluid Flow - Hydraulic Diameter

Calculate hydraulic diameter for pipes and ducts.

### Fluid Flow Friction Loss - Hazen-Williams Coefficients

Hazen-Williams friction loss coefficients for commonly used piping materials.

### Fluid Mechanics - Imperial and SI Units vs. Dimensions

Imperial (USCS) and SI dimensions and units terminology in fluid mechanics.

### Friction Flow Coeficients from Moody Diagram

Online Moody friction flow factor calculator - as used in the Darcy-Weisbach major loss equation.

### Froude Number

Introduction to the Froude Number.

### Gas Mixtures - Properties

Gas mixtures and the ideal gas law, mass calculations, the individual gas constant and density.

### Gases - Ratios of Specific Heat

Ratios of specific heat for gases with constant pressure and volume processes.

### Hazen-Williams Friction Loss Equation - calculating Head Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (*ft _{H2O} per 100 ft pipe*) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation.

### Helium - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of helium, He, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Hot Water Heating Systems - Pressure Loss in Steel Pipes

Pressure loss nomogram for hot water steel pipes.

### Hydraulic Force vs. Pascal's Law

Pascal's law and the hydraulic force acting in fluids.

### Hydrocarbon Mixtures - Average Boiling Points vs. Gravity and Molecular Weights

Formulas and examples of calculation of boiling point of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and molecular weight.

### Hydrocarbon Mixtures - Molecular Weight vs. Gravity and Average Boiling Point

Formulas and examples of calculation of average molecular weight of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and average boiling point, achieved from distillation data.

### Hydrogen - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of hydrogen, H_{2}, at temperatures ranging from -260 to 325 °C (-435 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Hydrogen - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of hydrogen, H_{2}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Hydrogen sulfide - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of hydrogen sulfide, H_{2}S, also called hydrosulfuric acid, sewer gas and stink damp. Phase diagram included.

### Hydrostatic Force acting on Submerged Surface

Calculate the thrust force acting on a submerged surface.

### Hydrostatic Pressure vs. Depth

Depth and hydrostatic pressure.

### Inorganic Compounds in Water - Melting and Boiling Temperature, Density and Solubility

Physical constants for more than 280 common inorganic compounds. Density is given for the actual state at 25°C and for liquid phase at melting point temperature.

### Ionic Compounds in Water - Solubility Guidelines

Guidelines or solubility rules to predict whether or not a given ionic compound is soluble in water at room temperature.

### Isentropic Flow

Fluid flow with constant entropy is also called isentropic flow.

### Jet Propulsion

Calculate the propulsive discharge force or thrust induced by an incompressible jet flow.

### Kinematic Viscosity - Convert between Units

Convert between Centistokes, Saybolt and Redwood seconds.

### Kinematic Viscosity - Online Converter

Convert between kinematic viscosity units like centistokes, poise, lentor and more.

### Laminar Flow - Friction Coefficients

Calculate friction coefficients for laminar fluid flow.

### Laminar, Transitional and Turbulent Flow

Heat transfer, pressure and head loss in a fluid varies with laminar, transitional or turbulent flow.

### Laplace Equation

Important in fluid dynamics describing the behavior of gravitational and fluid potentials.

### Lift and Drag

Lift and drag forces acting on a body like an air foil in a fluid flow.

### Liquid Ammonia - Thermal Properties at Saturation Pressure

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity and Prandtls no. of liquid ammonia at saturation pressure.

### Liquid Flow from Containers - Emptying Time

Calculate liquid velocity, volume flow and draining time when emptying a container for it's fluid.

### Liquids - Densities vs. Pressure and Temperature Change

Densities and specific volume of liquids vs. pressure and temperature change.

### Liquids - Dynamic Viscosities

Absolute (dynamic) viscosity values for some common fluids.

### Liquids - Kinematic Viscosities

Kinematic viscosities of some common liquids like motor oil, diesel fuel, peanut oil and many more.

### Mach Number

An introduction to the Mach Number.

### Major Loss Online Calculator - the Darcy-Weisbach Friction Loss Equation

An online major loss calculator based on the Darcy-Weisbach friction loss equation.

### Manning's Formula and Gravity Flow

Calculate cross-sectional average velocity flow in open channels.

### Manning's Roughness Coefficients

Manning's roughness coefficients for some common materials.

### Mass vs. Weight

Mass vs. weight - the Gravity Force.

### Mechanical Energy Equation vs. Bernoulli Equation

The Mechanical Energy Equation compared to the Extended Bernoulli Equation.

### Methane - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of methane, CH_{4}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Methane - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of methane, CH_{4}, at temperatures ranging from -160 to 725 °C (-260 to 1300 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Methane - Prandtl number vs. Temperature

Figures and table showing changes in Prandtl number for methane with changes in temperature and pressure.

### Methane - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of methane, CH_{4}, at temperatures ranging from -160 to 725 °C (-260 to 1300 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Methane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Methane - *CH _{4}*. Phase diagram included.

### Methanol - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of methanol,CH_{3}OH, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Methanol - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of liquid methanol,CH_{3}OH, at varying temperature - Imperial and SI Units.

### Methanol - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing isobaric and isochoric specific heat of methanol, CH_{3}OH, at varying temperature - Imperial and SI Units.

### Methanol - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of methanol, CH_{3}OH (also called carbinol, wood alcohol, hydroxy methyl and methyl alcohol). Phase diagram included.

### Mixing Fluids

Final mass and temperature when mixing fluids.

### Mixtures, Solutions and Suspensions

Mixtures vs. solutions vs. suspensions.

### Moody Diagram

Calculate fluid flow friction coefficients from a Moody diagram.

### Motor Oils - Dynamic Viscosities

Dynamic viscosities for motor oils SAE 10 to 50 for temperatures ranging 0-100 ^{o}C.

### Navier-Stokes Equations

The Navier-Stokes equations are the fundamental partial differentials equations used to describe incompressible fluid flows.

### Nitrogen - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of nitrogen, N_{2}, at temperatures ranging from -175 to 1325 °C (-280 to 2400 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Nitrogen - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of nitrogen, N_{2}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Nitrogen - Prandtl number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables showing Prandtl number of nitrogen at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Nitrogen - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of nitrogen, N_{2}, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Nitrogen - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of nitrogen at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Nitrogen - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Nitrogen - *N _{2}*.

### Non-ideal gas - Van der Waal's Equation and Constants

The van der Waals constants for more than 200 gases used to correct for non-ideal behavior of gases caused by intermolecular forces and the volume occupied by the gas particles.

### Nozzles

Gas flow through nozzles and sonic chokes.

### Oil Viscosity Converter

Convert between commonly used oil viscosity units.

### Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi Flow Rate Meters

The orifice, nozzle and venturi flow rate meters makes the use of the Bernoulli Equation to calculate fluid flow rate using pressure difference through obstructions in the flow.

### Oxygen - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of oxygen, O_{2}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Oxygen - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of oxygen, O_{2}, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Pentane - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing density and specific weight of pentane, C_{5}H_{12}, at temperatures ranging from -130 to 325 °C (-200 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Pentane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of pentane, also called n-pentane. Phase diagram included.

### Petroleum Products - Average Boiling Points

Definition, explanation and examples of calculation of various types of average boiling point of petroleum products and other mixtures of hydrocarbons: VABP, MABP, WABP, CABP and MeABP.

### Pipe and Duct Systems - Total Head Loss

Major and minor loss in pipes, tubes and duct systems.

### Pipe and Tube System Components - Minor (Dynamic) Loss Coefficients

Minor loss coefficients for components used in pipe and tube systems.

### Pipes - Fluid Flow Velocities

Calculate fluid velocity and volume flow in pipes and tubes.

### Poiseuille's Formula

Calculate the volume flow discharged through a smooth-walled circular pipe.

### Prandtl Number

A dimensionless number approximating the ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity.

### Pressure

Introduction to pressure - online pressure units converter.

### Pressure Coefficient

The Pressure Coefficient is the ratio of pressure forces to inertial forces.

### Pressure Energy

Calculate the potential of pressure energy in a incompressible fluid.

### Pressure Gradient Diagrams

Static pressure graphical presentation throughout a fluid flow system.

### Pressure Loss in Pipes connected in Series or Parallel

Calculate pressure loss in pipes connected in series or parallel.

### Pressure Units - Online Converter

Convert between pressure units like *Pa, bar, atmosphere, pound square feet, psi* and more.

### Propane - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of propane, C_{3}H_{8}, at temperatures ranging from -187 to 725 °C (-305 to 1300 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Propane - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Propane - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Propane - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables with specific heat, Cp and Cv, of gasous and liquid propane, C_{3}H_{8} vs. temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units .

### Propane - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Propane - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Pumps - Affinity Laws

Turbo machines affinity laws can be used to calculate volume capacity, head or power consumption in centrifugal pumps when changing speed or wheel diameters.

### Pumps vs. Compressors, Blowers and Fans

The difference between pumps, compressors, blowers and fans.

### Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators.

### Solubility

The amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a solvent.

### Solubility Product Constants

The equilibrium constant, Ksp, for aqueous solutions of ionic compounds at 25°C.

### Speed of Sound Equations

Calculate the speed of sound (the sonic velocity) in gases, fluids or solids.

### Static Pressure vs. Head

Static pressure vs. pressure head in fluids.

### Stokes' Formula

Viscosity force acting on a smooth sphere.

### Strouhal Number

Introduction to the Strouhal Number

### Surface Tension

Surface tension of liquids like water, mercury, oils and more.

### Technical Terms in Fluid Mechanics

Some commonly used technical terms in fluid mechanics.

### The Ideal Gas Law

The relationship between volume, pressure, temperature and quantity of a gas, including definition of gas density.

### Toluene - Density and Specific Weight vs. Teemperature and Pressure

Density and specific weight of liquid toluene.

### Toluene - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of toluene, also called methylbenzene, toluol and phenylmethane. Phase diagram included.

### Turbo Machines - Specific Work done by Pumps, Compressors or Fans

Calculate specific work done by pumps, fans, compressors or turbines.

### U-Tube Differential Pressure Manometers

Inclined and vertical u-tube manometers used to measure differential pressure in flow meters like pitot tubes, orifices and nozzles.

### Universal and Individual Gas Constants

The Universal and Individual Gas Constants in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. Individual gas constants for the most common gases.

### Velocity Pressure Head

Dynamic pressure or velocity head.

### Viscosity - Absolute (Dynamic) vs. Kinematic

Vicosity is a fluid's resistance to flow and can be valued as dynamic (absolute) or kinematic.

### Viscosity - Converter Chart

Convert between viscosity units like *Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU*.

### Viscous Liquids - Friction Loss vs. Viscosity and Flow

Friction loss in steel pipes for fluids with viscosities ranging *32 - 80000 SSU*.

### Water - Absolute (Dynamic) Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Absolute viscosity for water in centipoises for temperatures between *32 - 200 ^{o}F*.

### Water - Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Dynamic (Absolute) and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Free online calculator - figures and tables with viscosity of water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 675°F) - Imperial and SI Units.

### Water - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).

### Water - Speed of Sound vs. Temperature

Speed of sound in water at temperatures ranging *32 - 212 ^{o}F (0 - 100^{o}C)* - Imperial and SI units.

### Water - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with thermal diffusivity of liquids and gaseous water at varying temperarures and pressures - SI and Imperial units.

###
Water Control Valves - Flow Factor *K*_{v} Diagram

_{v}

Sizing of water control valves - SI units

### Water Flow in Tubes - Reynolds Number

Reynolds number for clean cold water flow.

### Water vs. Steam - Critical and Triple Points

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

### Weber Number

The Weber Number may be useful when analyzing fluid flows where there is an interface between two different fluids.

### Wind Energy

Available wind energy.

### Wind Power

Power generation from wind.

### Wind Shear

Wind slowed down at surface by trees and obstructions.

### Wind Turbine Power Calculator

Online wind turbine calculator.