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Gases and Compressed Air

Properties of air, LNG, LPG and other common gases. Pipeline capacities and sizing of relief valves.

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Air - Composition and Molecular Weight

Dry air is a mechanical mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, argon and several other gases in minor amounts.

Air - Density and Specific Volume vs. Altitude

Density and specific volume of air varies with elevation above sea level.

Air - Density vs. Pressure and Temperature

Air density at pressure ranging 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psi) and constant selected temperatures.

Air - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficients of air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600 °C (-140 to 2900 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Air - Diffusion Coefficients of Gases in Excess of Air

Diffusion coefficients (D12) for gases in large excess of air at temperatures ranging 0 - 400 °C.

Air - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables with dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity for air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600°C (-150 to 2900°F) and at pressures ranging 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.

Air - Molecular Weight and Composition

Dry air is a mixture of gases where the average molecular weight (or molar mass) can be calculated by adding the weight of each component.

Air - Prandtl Number

Prandtl number for air vs. temperature and pressure.

Air - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Properties of air change along the boiling and condensation curves (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An air phase diagram included.

Air - SCFM versus ACFM and ICFM

Actual air compressor capacity (ACFM) vs. standard air capacity (SCFM) and inlet air capacity (ICFM).

Air - Specific Heat Ratio

Specific Heat Ratio of air at temperatures ranging -40 - 1000 degC (-40 - 1500 degF) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Air - Specific Heat vs. Pressure at Constant Temperature

Figures and tables with isobaric (Cp) and isochoric (Cv) specific heat of air at constant temperature and pressure ranging 0.01 to 10000 bara.

Air - Specific Heat vs. Temperature at Constant Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing specific heat (Cp and Cv) of dry air vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.

Air - Speed of Sound vs. Temperature

Speed of sound in air at standard atmospheric pressure with temperatures ranging -40 to 1000 °C (-40 to 1500 °F) - Imperial and SI Units.

Air - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing air thermal conductivity vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.

Air - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables withdry air thermal diffusivity vs. temperarure and pressure. SI and Imperial units.

Air - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of air at different temperatures - density, viscosity, critical temperature and pressure, triple point, enthalpi and entropi, thermal conductivity and diffusivity and more.

Air - Volume vs. Temperature

Air volume vs. temperature correction factor compared to Normal Air Conditions.

Air Compressor - Power Cost per Year

Yearly power cost for operating an air compressor.

Air Compressors - Maximum Air Flow vs. Inlet Pipe Size

Inlet pipe size and maximum air flow.

Air Properties - Imperial Units

Thermodynamic properties of air at low pressures - imperial units.

Air Tools - Air Consumption

Air consumption of air tools.

Ammonia Gas - Density vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ammonia for temperatures ranging -50 to 425 °C (-50 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

ASTM B819 Seamless Copper Tubes for Medical Gas Systems - Dimensions

Dimensions of copper tubes used in medical gas systems.

Boyle's Law (Mariotte's Law)

The volume of an ideal gas vs. pressure.

Carbon Dioxide Gas - Ideal Properties

Enthalpy, Entropy and Internal Energy of Carbon Dioxide gas.

Charles' Law

Volume of an ideal gas vs. temperature.

Classification of Gases

Oxidizers vs. inert vs. flammable gases.

Compressed Air - Air Flow and Recommended Pipe Size

Pipe line sizing compressed air

Compressed Air - Air Flow Discharge through Hoses

Discharged air flow volume through hoses with pressure ranging 30 - 90 psi.

Compressed Air - Friction Loss in Hoses

Friction loss in air hoses vs. operating pressure.

Compressed Air - Glossary of Terms

A glossary of terms commonly used for compressed air.

Compressed Air - Laboratory Consumption

Compressed air supply to laboratories.

Compressed Air - Pipe Line Pressure Drop Diagram

Calculate pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines with a nomograph diagram.

Compressed Air - Pipe Line Pressure Loss - Online Calculator with Metric and Imperial Units

Calculate pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines - metric and imperial units.

Compressed Air - Pressure Drop Diagrams, Metric Units

Pressure loss in compressed air pipe lines.

Compressed Air - Size of Pipe vs. Capacity

Air pipe lines capacities at pressure 100 psi (6.9 bar).

Compressed Air - Storage Volume

Calculate the storage volume of compressed air or other gases.

Compressed Air - Water Content

Saturation pressure and maximum water content in compressed air.

Compressed Air Pipe Line Capacity

Capacities of compressed air pipelines - pressure ranging 5 - 250 psi (0.5 - 17 bar).

Compressed Air Pipe Lines - Pressure Loss vs. Capacity and Operating Pressure

Pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines.

Compressed Air Pipes - Fittings and Pressure Loss

Fittings in compressed air pipe lines and equivalent length pressure drop.

Compressed Air Piping - Pressure Loss Diagrams, Imperial Units

Pressure drop in compressed air pipelines with applied pressure 50, 100 and 150 psi.

Compressed Air Quality

Compressed air is used for power tools, instrumentation, processing, breathing and medical purposes.

Compressed Air Receivers

Calculating air receivers capacity.

Compressed Air vs. Free Air - Compression Ratio

The ratio of compressed air pressure to free air pressure.

Critical Temperatures and Pressures for some Common Substances

Critical temperatures and pressures for some common substances like air, alcohol, ether, oxygen and more.

Dalton's Law

Gibbs' Dalton's law of the total pressure of a mixture of gases.

EN 1057 Copper Tubes for Water and Gas in Sanitary and Heating Applications - Dimensions

Dimensions of EN 1057 Copper and copper alloys - Seamless, round copper tubes for water and gas in sanitary and heating applications.

EN 12735 Seamless, Round Copper Tubes for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration - Dimensions

Dimensions of seamless, round copper tubes for air conditioning and refrigeration piping systems.

EN 13348 Seamless, Round Copper Tubes for Medical Gases or Vacuum - Dimensions

Dimensions of seamless round copper and copper alloys tubes for medical gases or vacuum.

Gas Cookers - Marks vs. Temperature

Gas marks on gas ovens and heat or temperature developed.

Gas Data

Online database with gas properties.

Gas Mixtures - Properties

Gas mixtures and the ideal gas law, mass calculations, the individual gas constant and density.

Gas Pipes - Approved Materials

Materials approved for gas pipes.

Gas Pipes - Low Pressure Sizing

Sizing gas pipes for apartment service lines.

Gas Vent Termination - Clearance vs. Roof Slope

Clearance tolerance for gas vent terminations vs. roof slope.

Gases - Control Valve Calculator

An online control valve - Cv - calculator for gases.

Gases - Densities

Densities and molecular weights of common gases like acetylene, air, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and others.

Gases - Explosion and Flammability Concentration Limits

Flame and explosion limits for gases like propane, methane, butane, acetylene and more.

Gases - Specific Gravities

Specific gravities of air, ammonia, butadiene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other common gases.

Horsepower required to Compress Air

Calculate horsepower required by air compressors.

House Gas Pipes - Capacities vs. Dimensions

Carrying capacity of house gas pipes - in imperial and metric units.

Hydraulic Force vs. Pascal's Law

Pascal's law and the hydraulic force acting in fluids.

Liquids - Vapor Pressures

Vapor and saturation pressure for some common liquids.

LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas

LNG or Liquefied Natural Gas.

LPG - Gas Properties

Liquefied Petroleum - LP - gas properties.

LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas.

LPG Tanks - Relief Valves Capacities

Required capacities of relief valves on LPG vaporizers and tanks.

Medical Gas Piping

Piping systems for medical gases.

Methane - Liquid vs. Gaseous Units

Convert between liquid and gaseous LNG and Methane units.

Moist Air - Density vs. Water Content and Temperature

Density of the mix of dry air and water vapor - moist humid air.

Natural Gas - Equipment Consumption

Natural gas consumption for equipment like boiling pans, ovens, cookers, kettles and more.

Natural Gas - Meter Capacities

Types of natural gas meters and their capacities.

Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing Calculator

Calculate capacities and dimensions of natural gas pipe lines.

Natural Gas Apartment Consumption vs. no. of Apartments

Multiple apartments and natural gas demand.

Natural Gas Glossary

Natural gas is used extensively in residential, commercial and industrial applications.

Natural Gas Laboratory Consumption vs. no. of Outlets

Natural gas consumption in laboratory outlets.

Natural Gas Pipes - Low Pressure Capacities vs. Size

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Imperial units.

Natural Gas Pipes - Minimum Cover

Burial dept and minimum cover of underground natural gas pipes.

Natural Gas Piping - Sizing of Low Pressure Pipes vs. Capacity

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Metric units.

Natural Gas Piping - Sizing vs. Capacity

Sizing natural gas pipes - pressures above 5 psi (35 kPa).

Nitrogen - Enthalpy, Internal Energy and Entropy vs. Temperature

Enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of Nitrogen as an ideal gas.

Non-ideal gas - Van der Waal's Equation and Constants

The van der Waals constants for more than 200 gases used to correct for non-ideal behavior of gases caused by intermolecular forces and the volume occupied by the gas particles.

Orifice Air Discharge vs. Pressure

Nozzles discharging air volume.

Orifices - Natural Gas Capacity

Capacity of natural gas orifices.

Oxygen - Enthalpy, Internal Energy and Entropy vs. Temperature

Enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of oxygen as an ideal gas.

Pneumatic Cylinder - Acting Velocity

Calculate pneumatic cylinder acting velocity.

Pneumatic Cylinder - Excerted Force vs. Pressure

Force excerted by pneumatic air cylinders vs. air pressure cylinder size - online calculator.


Introduction to pressure - online pressure units converter.

Pressure Units Converter

Convert from kPa to psi and inches of Water and Mercury.

Propane - Latent Heat of Vaporization vs. Temperature

Latent heat with vaporized propane.

Propane Air Mixture

Energy content and specific gravity of propane air mixtures.

Propane Butane Mixture - Evaporation Pressure

Evaporation pressure of propane butane mixture vs. temperature.

Propane Gas - Sizing of Pipe Lines

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Metric units.

Propane Gas Piping - Capacity vs. Size

Sizing of propane gas pipe lines with pressures above 5 psig (35 kPa).

Propane Gas Piping - Low Pressure Capacity vs. Size

Sizing of low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Imperial units.

Pumps vs. Compressors, Blowers and Fans

The difference between pumps, compressors, blowers and fans.

Rating of Air Compressors and Air Equipment

Common rating terms for air flow capacity are ICFM, FAD, ANR, SCFM or nl/min.

Relief Valves - Length of Vent Pipes

Calculate length of safety valves vent pipes.

Safety Relief Valves - Capacity vs. Pressure

Maximum safety valve free air relief capacity.

Safety Valves in Gas and Vapor Systems

Calculating relief valves in gas and vapor systems.

Single Acting Pneumatic Piston - Air Consumption

Calculate air volume used by a single-acting piston.

Steam and Vapor Enthalpy

Vapor and steam enthalpy, specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor.

The Ideal Gas Law

The relationship between volume, pressure, temperature and quantity of a gas, including definition of gas density.

Types of Air Compressors

Reciprocating, rotary screw and rotary centrifugal air compressors.

Universal and Individual Gas Constants

The Universal and Individual Gas Constants in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. Individual gas constants for the most common gases.


Vacuum is defined as air pressure below atmospheric pressure.

Vacuum - Air Expansion Ratio

Convert vacuum air volume to standard air volume

Vacuum - Evacuation Time

Vacuum pumps - calculate flow rate and required evacuation time.

Vacuum - Flow Measurement

Measure air volume flow in vacuum.

Vacuum - Pressure Units Converter

Converting between vacuum units like % vacuum - mm Mercury - psi - torr - micron - kPa.

Vacuum Pipes - Flow Velocities

Air velocity diagrams for vacuum pipe lines.

Vacuum Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Air Flow

Calculate pressure drops in vacuum pipe lines.

Vacuum Pumps - Exhaust Pipe Capacities

Capacities of vacuum pump exhaust pipes.

Vapor and Steam

An introduction to vapor and steam.

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