Internal energy - u - can be calculated from (2) and is often omitted in tables. v f - change very little and is also often omitted.
Specific enthalpy of saturated water - h f - can be obtained from tables as above. The value depends on the pressure.
For saturated water at standard atmosphere - 2) -the specific enthalpy - h f - is 419 kJ/kg . At standard atmosphere - 1 bar (14.7 psi) - water starts boiling at 100 o C (212 o F).
The specific enthalpy of water (in SI units) can be calculated from:
h f = c w (t f - t 0 ) (3)
h f = enthalpy of water (kJ/kg)
c w = specific heat water (4.19 kJ/kg. o C)
t f = saturation temperature ( o C)
t 0 = refer temperature = 0 ( o C)
Specific enthalpy of saturated steam - h g - can be obtained from tables as above. The value depends on the pressure.
For saturated steam at standard atmosphere - 2) - the specific enthalpy - h g - is 2676 kJ/kg .
The specific enthalpy of evaporation can be calculated from:
h e = h g - h f (4)
h e = specific evaporation enthalpy (kJ/kg)
Specific evaporation enthalpy for water at standard atmosphere is:
h e = (2676 kJ/kg) - (419 kJ/kg)
= 2257 (kJ/kg)
The energy to evaporate a certain amount of water can be calculated as
Q = h e m (4b)
Q = evaporation energy (kJ)
m = mass of water (kg)
The energy to evaporate 5 kg of water at atmospheric pressure can be calculated as
Q = ( 2257 kJ/kg) ( 5 kg )
= 11285 kJ
The specific enthalpy of superheated steam can be calculated from:
h s = h g + c ps (t s - t f ) (5)
h s = enthalpy of superheated steam (kJ/kg)
c ps = specific heat of steam at constant pressure = 1.860 (kJ/kg o C)
t f = saturation temperature ( o C)
t s = superheated steam temperature ( o C)
c ps = 1.860 (kJ/kg o C) at standard atmosphere. Be aware that c ps varies with temperature.
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The amount of thermal energy stored in heated water.
Evaporative cooling tutorial.
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Latent heat of vaporization for fluids like alcohol, ether, nitrogen, water and more.
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Saturated Steam Table with properties like boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization.
Standardized enthalpies and entropies for some common substances.
Basic steam thermodynamics - entropy diagram.
Enthalpy of steam superheated to temperatures above it's boiling point.
The entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above saturation points.
An introduction to vapor and steam.
Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam.
Wet steam, dryness fraction and enthalpy.
Introduction and definition of steam quality and dryness fraction including calculating wet steam enthalpy and specific volume.
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