Hot and cold water service systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more.
Selecting and sizing butterfly valves for water applications.
Modulating pumps to adapt capacities to variable process demands.
Required cold water dwelling storage capacity - commonly used fixtures and types of buildings.
Cold water storage for occupants in common types of buildings as factories, hospitals, houses and more
Heat loss from uninsulated copper tubes vs. temperature differences between tube and air.
Water velocity in a copper tube should not exceed certain limits to avoid erosion.
Heat loss from uninsulated copper pipes - dimensions ranging 1/2 - 4 inches.
ASTM B88 seamless copper water tubes - working pressures.
Domestic Hot-Water sizing equations - heating capacity, recovery rate and power supply.
Design procedures for domestic hot water service systems.
Introduction to general design of domestic service water supply systems - with pressurized or gravity tanks.
Lime deposited vs. temperature and water consumption.
Farming and animals required water supply.
Content of hot water in some common used fixtures - basins, sinks and baths.
Recommended drain trap sizes for different types of fixtures
Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] for several gases in water.
Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) like density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.
Water discharge through hoses - pressure ranging 10 - 200 psi (0.75 - 14 bar).
Recommended dimensions hot and cold water pipes.
Hot water can be circulated through a return pipe if it's instantly required at the fixtures.
Consumption of hot water per person or occupant.
Dimensions and capacities of hot-water storage tanks.
Hot water consumption of some common equipment as basins, sinks, baths and showers.
Design hot water consumption of fixtures - basins, showers, sinks and baths.
Draw HVAC diagrams online with this Google Drive drawing tool.
Online calculator, figures and tables with melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Heat loss to surrounding air from insulated copper tubes.
Calculate flow coefficients for the design of control valves - Imperial units.
Discharge capacities of water nozzles.
Discharge length vs. volume flow from water filled horizontal pipes.
Draw P&ID diagrams online in the browser with Google Docs.
Heat loss (W/m) from 1/2 to 6 inches insulated pipes - ranging insulation thickness 10 to 80 mm and temperature differences 20 to 180 degC.
Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40.
Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators.
Stainless steels are commonly grouped into martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels.
Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services according ANSI/AWWA C207-01.
No. of fixture units and required trap size.
Volume flow and discharge height from vertical water pipes.
Volumetric temperature expansion calculator.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.
Definitions, online calculator and figures and tables with water properties like density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 680°F).
Free online calculator - figures and tables with viscosity of water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 675°F) - Imperial and SI Units.
Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.
Activity and average water consumption
Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables.
Recommended max. water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps.
Figures and tables with Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).
Online calculator, figures and tables with water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging 0 to 370 °C (32 to 700°F) - in Imperial and SI Units.
Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units.
Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
Figures and tables with thermal diffusivity of liquids and gaseous water at varying temperarures and pressures - SI and Imperial units.
Designing water process control valves and their Kv values.
Materials used in water distribution pipes.
Recommended maximum flow velocities in water systems on the delivery side of the pump.
Rapidly closing or opening valves - or starting stopping pumps - may cause pressure transients in pipelines known as surge or water hammers.
Water service pipe lines extends from the potable water source to the interior of buildings.
Calculating expected demand for water supply service lines.
Supply requirements for common fixtures.
Converting WSFU - Water Supply Fixture Units - to GPM.
WSFU is used to calculate water supply service systems.
Sizing water supply service and distribution lines based on Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU).
Sizing of water supply pipe lines.
Required water supply to public buildings.
Typiclal limits for impurities in drinking water.
Free online tool for designing water supply systems in buildings.
Water velocities in pipes and tubes should not exceed certain limits.
Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Water consumption in garden fixtures.