# Mechanics

## The relationships between forces, acceleration, displacement, vectors, motion, momentum, energy of objects and more.

### Acceleration of Gravity and Newton's Second Law

Acceleration of gravity and Newton's Second Law - SI and Imperial units.

### Acceleration Units Converter

Converting between units of acceleration.

### American Standard Beams - S Beam

American Standard Beams ASTM A6 - Imperial units.

### American Wide Flange Beams

American Wide Flange Beams ASTM A6 in metric units.

### Area Moment of Inertia - Typical Cross Sections I

Typical cross sections and their Area Moment of Inertia.

### Area Moment of Inertia - Typical Cross Sections II

Area Moment of Inertia, Moment of Inertia for an Area or Second Moment of Area for typical cross section profiles.

### Area Moment of Inertia Converter

Convert between Area Moment of Inertia units.

### Beam Loads - Support Force Calculator

Calculate beam load and supporting forces.

### Beams - Fixed at Both Ends - Continuous and Point Loads

Stress, deflections and supporting loads.

### Beams - Fixed at One End and Supported at the Other - Continuous and Point Loads

Supporting loads, moments and deflections.

### Beams - Supported at Both Ends - Continuous and Point Loads

Supporting loads, stress and deflections.

### Belt Transmissions - Speed and Length of Belts

Calculate length and speed of belt and belt gearing.

### Belts - Power Transmission and Efficiency

Calculate belts power transmission and efficiency

### Belts - Pulley Diameters vs. Speed

The pulley laws - driver and driven - diameter and rpm

### Bodies Moving on Inclined Planes - Acting Forces

Required forces to move bodies up inclined planes.

### Bollard Forces

Friction, load and effort forces acting in ropes turned around bollards.

### British Universal Columns and Beams

Properties of British Universal Steel Columns and Beams.

### Cable Loads

Force and tension in cables with uniform loads.

### Car Acceleration

Car acceleration calculator.

### Center Mass

Calculate position of center mass.

### Center of Gravity

A body and the center of gravity.

### Center of Gravity and Buoyancy

Stability - the center of gravity vs. the center of buoyancy.

### Centripetal and Centrifugal Acceleration Force

Forces due to circular motion and centripetal / centrifugal acceleration.

### Conn-Rod Mechanism

The connecting rod mechanism.

### Conservation of Momentum

The momentum of a body is the product of its mass and velocity - recoil calculator.

### Density vs. Specific Weight and Specific Gravity

An introduction to density, specific weight and specific gravity.

### Disk Brakes - Torque and Force

Forces and torque activated with disk brakes.

### Drawbridge - Force and Moment vs. Elevation

Calculate the acting forces and moments when elevating drawbridges or beams.

### Efficiency of Small Machine Elements

Friction and efficiency in bearings and roller chains.

### Elevators - Force and Power

Required force and power to lift an elevator.

### Energy

Energy is the capacity to do work.

### Engineering Materials - Properties

Some typical properties of engineering materials like steel, plastics, ceramics and composites.

### Equilibrant Force

The force required to keep a system of forces in equilibrium.

### Fibre-reinforced Polymer Composites

Mechanical properties of fibers used to reinforce polymer composites.

### Flywheels - Kinetic Energy

The kinetic energy stored in flywheels - the moment of inertia.

### Force

Newton's third law - force vs. mass and acceleration.

### Force Ratio

The force ratio is the load force versus the effort force.

### Forces acting on Body Moving in a Horizontal Plane

The forces acting on bodies moved in horizontal planes.

### Forces and Tensions in Ropes due to Angle

Reduced load capacities in ropes, cables or lines - due to acting angle.

### Formulas of Motion - Linear and Circular

Linear and angular (rotation) acceleration, velocity, speed and distance.

### Friction - Friction Coefficients and Calculator

Friction theory with calculator and friction coefficients for combinations of materials like ice, aluminum, steel, graphite and many more.

### Gear Reducing Formulas

Output torque, speed and horsepower with gears.

### Gear Trains - Bicycle Gearing Calculator

Gear train transmissions - bicycle gearing.

### Gears

Gears effort force vs. load force.

### Harmonic Oscillator

A simple harmonic oscillator.

### HE-A Steel Beams

Properties of HE-A profiled steel beams.

### HE-B Steel Beams

Properties of HE-B profiled steel beams.

### HE-M Steel Beams

Properties of HE-M profile steel beams.

### Hooke's Law

Hooke's law - force, elongation and spring constant.

### Hot Air Balloons - Calculate Lifting Weights

Calculate hot air ballons lifting forces.

### Improvised Torque Wrench

Improvise a torque wrench with a luggage scale.

### Impulse and Impulse Force

Forces acting a very short time are called impulse forces.

### ISO 2841 - Spark Plugs Metric Threads

Metric threads spark plugs according ISO 28741.

### Kinetic Energy

Energy possessed by an object's motion is kinetic energy.

### Levers

Use levers to magnify forces.

### Lifting Wheels

Loads and effort force with lifting wheels.

### Mass Moment of Inertia

The Mass Moment of Inertia vs. mass of object, it's shape and relative point of rotation - the Radius of Gyration.

### Mass vs. Weight

Mass vs. weight - the Gravity Force.

### Metric Bolts - Minimum Ultimate Tensile and Proof Loads

Minimum ultimate tensile and proof loads for metric bolts with coarse or fine threads.

### Metric Nuts - Proof Loads

Proof loads of metric nuts - coarse and fine threads.

### Metric Steel Bolts - Grades and Property Classes

Metric steel bolts, screws and studs - proof and tensile strength.

### Modulus of Rigidity

Shear Modulus (Modulus of Rigidity) is the elasticity coefficient for shearing or torsion force.

### Motors - Speed vs. Pulley Diameter

Pulley (Sheave) selection charts for motors ranging 850 - 3450 rpm.

### Movement Ratio

Machines and movement ratio (velocity ratio).

### Normal Flange I-Beams

Properties of normal flange I profile steel beams.

### Poisson's Ratio

When a material is stretched in one direction it tends to get thinner in the other two directions.

### Poisson's Ratios Metals

Some metals and their Poisson's Ratios.

### Potential Energy - Hydropower

Elevation and potential energy in hydropower.

### Power

Power is the rate at which work is done or energy converted.

### Projectile Range

Calculate the range of a projectile - a motion in two dimensions.

### Pulleys

Pulleys, blocks and tackles.

### Radians vs. Degrees

Radian is the SI unit of angle. Convert between degrees and radians. Calculate angular velocity.

### Radius of Gyration in Structural Engineering

Radius of gyration describes the distribution of cross sectional area in columns around their centroidal axis.

### Restricted Thermal Expansion - Force and Stress

Stress and force when thermal expansion a pipe, beam or similar is restricted.

### Rolling Resistance

Rolling friction and rolling resistance.

### Rotating Shafts - Torque

Torsional moments acting on rotating shafts.

### Screw Jack - Effort Force vs. Load

Screw jacks and effort forces.

### Section Modulus - Unit Converter

Convert between Elastic Section Modulus units.

### Shafts Torsion

The torsion of solid or hollow shafts - Polar Moment of Inertia of Area.

### Steel Bolts - ASTM Grades

ASTM steel bolts - proof and tensile strength.

### Steel Bolts - SAE Grades

SAE steel bolts - grades ranging grade 1 to 8.2 - proof and tensile strength.

### Steels - Endurance Limits and Fatigue Stress

Endurance limits and fatigue stress for steels.

### Stiffness

Stiffness is resistance to deflection.

### Stress

Stress is force applied on cross-sectional area.

### Stress in Thick-Walled Cylinders or Tubes

Radial and tangential stress in thick-walled cylinders or tubes with closed ends - with internal and external pressure.

### Stress in Thin-Walled Cylinders or Tubes

Hoop and longitudinal stress thin-walled tubes or cylinders.

### Stress, Strain and Young's Modulus

Stress is force per unit area - strain is the deformation of a solid due to stress.

### Support Reactions - Equilibrium

Static equilibrium is achieved when the resultant force and resultant moment equals to zero.

### Three-Hinged Arches - Continuous and Point Loads

Support reactions and bending moments.

### Toggle Joint

A toggle joint mechanism can be used to multiply force.

### Torque - Work done and Power Transmitted

The work done and power transmitted by a constant torque.

### Torque or Moment of Force - Online Converter

Torque or moment - the tendency of a force to rotate an object.

### Trusses

Common types of trusses.

### UNC and UNF - Unified Coarce and Unified Fine Inch Threads

ANSI/ASME B1.1 Unified National Thread - UNC Coarse series and UNF Fine series.

### Universal Gravitational Law

Gravitational attraction between two objects vs. mass of the objects and the distance between them.

### Vector Addition

Online vector calculator - add vectors with different magnitude and direction - like forces, velocities and more.

### W-Beams - American Wide Flange Beams

Dimensions of American Wide Flange Beams ASTM A6 (or W-Beams) - Imperial units.

### Weight of Beams - Stress and Strain

Stress and deformation of vertical beams due to own weight.

### Wind Load vs. Wind Speed

Wind load on surface - Wind load calculator.

### Wire Rope Slings

Sling angles and influence on capacity.

### Work done by Force

Work done by a force acting on an object.

### Young's Modulus, Tensile Strength and Yield Strength Values for some Materials

Young's Modulus (or Tensile Modulus alt. Modulus of Elasticity) and Ultimate Tensile Strength and Yield Strength for materials like steel, glass, wood and many more.

### • Fasteners

Bolts, nuts and threaded rods - torque, tension and loads.

### • Threads

Thread data - metric, unified, ACME and others.