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# Fluid Flow and Pressure Loss

## Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water, sewer, steel pipes, pvc pipes, copper tubes and more.

### Boiling Fluids - Max Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended max suction flow velocity when pumping boiling fluids.

### Boiling Liquids - Max Pumping Flow Velocities

Recommended max flow velocity on the delivery (pressure) side when pumping boiling liquids.

### Copper Tubes - Equivalent Length Pressure Loss in Fittings and Valves

Copper tube fittings and equivalent lengths - in feets of straight tube.

### Copper Tubes - Heat Carrying Capacities

Hot water heat carrying capacities in copper tubes type L.

### Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow

Water flow and pressure loss (psi/ft) due to friction in copper tubes ASTM B88 Types K, L and M.

### CTS (Copper Tube Sized) and CPVC Tubes - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow

Volume flow and pressure loss in CTS - Copper Tube Sized CPVC (Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride) tubes.

### Darcy-Weisbach Equation - Major Pressure and Head Loss due to Friction

The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to calculate the major pressure and head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes or tubes.

ANSI is a private, not-for-profit, membership organization that acts not as a standards developer, but as a standards coordinating and approval body.

### Energy Equation - Pressure Loss vs. Head Loss

Calculate pressure loss - or head loss - in ducts, pipes or tubes.

### Equivalent Length Method - Minor Pressure Loss in Piping Systems

Calculate minor pressure loss in piping systems with the Equivalent Pipe Length Method.

### Equivalent Length vs. Minor Pressure Head Loss in Pipe and Duct Components

Minor pressure and head loss in pipes vs. equivalent length in tubes and duct systems.

### Fluid Flow - Equation of Continuity

The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation.

### Fluid Flow - Hydraulic Diameter

Calculate hydraulic diameter for pipes and ducts.

### Friction Loss in Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes

Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) vs. water flow in steel, copper and PVC plastic pipes.

### Gas Pipes - Low Pressure Sizing

Sizing gas pipes for apartment service lines.

### Hazen-Williams Friction Loss Equation - calculating Head Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (ftH2O per 100 ft pipe) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation.

### Hazen-Williams Pressure Loss Equation

The Hazen-Williams equation can be used to calculate the pressure drop (psi) or friction loss in pipes or tubes.

### Hoses - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow

Pressure loss in hoses due to water flow and friction.

### Hot Water Heating Systems - Pressure Loss in Steel Pipes

Pressure loss nomogram for hot water steel pipes.

### Hot Water Systems - Equivalent Length vs. Fittings Resistance

Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating systems - equivalent length in feet and meter.

### House Gas Pipes - Capacities vs. Dimensions

Carrying capacity of house gas pipes - in imperial and metric units.

### Light Oil Pumping - Flow Velocities

Recommended max. flow velocities on the delivery side when pumping light oils.

### Light Oil Suction - Flow Velocities

Recommended max. suction flow velocities when pumping light oils.

### Lined Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow

Pressure drop diagrams for PTFE, PP, PFA and PVDF lined pipes.

### Liquids - Densities

Densities of common liquids like acetone, beer, oil, water and more.

### Liquids - Specific Gravities

Specific gravities of liquids like alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more.

### LPG Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Gas Flow

Resistance and pressure loss in liquid LPG pipes.

### Mechanical Energy Equation vs. Bernoulli Equation

The Mechanical Energy Equation compared to the Extended Bernoulli Equation.

### Natural Gas Pipes - Low Pressure Capacities vs. Size

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Imperial units.

### Natural Gas Piping - Sizing of Low Pressure Pipes vs. Capacity

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Metric units.

### Natural Gas Piping - Sizing vs. Capacity

Sizing natural gas pipes - pressures above 5 psi (35 kPa).

### Oil Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Oil Flow

Pressure drop in oil pipes - viscosities ranging 100 - 600 Saybolt Universal Seconds.

### Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities

Oil pipes flow velocities should be kept within certain limits.

### PE (PolyEthylene) Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow

Water flow in SDR pressure rated PE-pipes - pressure loss and velocities - Imperial and SI units.

### PE, PEH and PVC Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram

Pressure loss (bar/100 m) and velocy in PE, PEH or PVC pipes with water flow.

### Pipe and Duct Systems - Total Head Loss

Major and minor loss in pipes, tubes and duct systems.

### Pipe and Tube System Components - Minor (Dynamic) Loss Coefficients

Minor loss coefficients for components used in pipe and tube systems.

### Pipe Line Velocities vs. Fluid

Typical fluid flow velocities for common liquids, gases and vapors.

### Pipes - Fluid Flow Velocities

Calculate fluid velocity and volume flow in pipes and tubes.

### Pipes with Water Content - Weight and Volume

Estimate water content in pipes - weight and volume.

### Plastic Pipes - Friction Head Loss vs. Water Flow

Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) vs. water flow in plastic pipes like PVC, PP, PE or PEH.

### Pneumatic Piping - Pressure Loss vs. Air Flow

Pressure loss in pneumatic tubes - sizes ranging 5 - 36 mm.

### Pneumatic Powder and Solid Transport Systems

Pneumatic transport systems used to move powder and other solid products.

### Pneumatic Transport and Conveying - Carrying Velocities

Recommended air velocity for pneumatic transport of products like cement, coal, flour and more.

### Pneumatic Transporting

An introduction to pneumatic transport of powders.

### Pressfit Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram

Water flow pressure loss diagram.

### Pressfit Piping - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow

Water flow friction loss in pressfit piping.

Static pressure graphical presentation throughout a fluid flow system.

### Pressure to Head Unit Converter

Pressure vs. head units - like lb/in2, atm, inches mercury, bars, Pa and more.

### Propane Gas - Sizing of Pipe Lines

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Metric units.

### Propane Gas Piping - Capacity vs. Size

Sizing of propane gas pipe lines with pressures above 5 psig (35 kPa).

### Propane Gas Piping - Low Pressure Capacity vs. Size

Sizing of low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Imperial units.

### PVC Pipes - Equivalent Length and Pressure Loss in Fittings

Minor loss in PVC and CPVC fittings expressed as equivalent length of straight pipe.

### PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 40 - friction loss (ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft) and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches.

### PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow Diagrams

Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40.

### PVC Pipes Schedule 80 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 80 - friction loss (ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft) and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches.

### Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators.

### SDR (Standard Dimension Ratio) and S Pipe Series

The Standard Dimension Ratio - SDR - is used to rate pressure pipes.

### Secondary Coolants - Properties

Comparing properties like specific gravity, freezing points and viscosity for secondary coolants like calcium chloride, sodium chloride, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol.

### Sewer Pipes - Capacities vs. Slope

Carrying capacities of sewer and wastewater pipes - gpm and liter per second.

### Slurry Transports - Minimum Flow Velocities

Flow velocities in slurry transport systems to avoid settling of solids.

### Steel Pipes - Friction Loss vs. Viscous Liquid Flow

Friction loss in schedule 40 steel pipe with viscous liquids - viscosities ranging from water to oil.

### Steel Pipes - Maximum Water Flow Capacities vs. Size

Maximum water flow capacities in steel pipes - pipe dimensions ranging 2 - 24 inches.

### Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram

Friction loss and velocity diagrams - in imperial (psi/100 ft, ft/s) and SI (Pa/100m, m/s) units.

### Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Pressure Loss

Water flow and pressure loss in schedule 40 steel pipes - Imperial and SI units - gallons per minute, liters per second and cubic meters per hour.

### Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Velocity Head vs. Water Flow

Velocity head can be used to calculate minor pressure or head loss in fluid flow systems.

### Steel Pipes Schedule 80 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram

Water flow in steel pipes schedule 80 - pressure drop and velocity diagrams in SI and Imperial units.

### Vacuum Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Air Flow

Calculate pressure drops in vacuum pipe lines.

### Viscosity - Absolute (Dynamic) vs. Kinematic

Vicosity is a fluid's resistance to flow and can be valued as dynamic (absolute) or kinematic.

### Viscosity - Converting Chart

Convert between viscosity units like Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU.

### Viscous Liquids - Friction Loss vs. Viscosity and Flow

Friction loss in steel pipes for fluids with viscosities ranging 32 - 80000 SSU.

### Viscous Liquids - Max. Delivery Flow Velocities

Recommended max. flow velocities on delivery sides of pumps in viscous systems.

### Viscous Liquids - Max. Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended max. pump suction flow velocity for viscous fluids.

### Volume Flow - Online Unit Converter

Convert between volume flow units like gpm, liter/sec, cfm, m3/h.

### Water - Absolute (Dynamic) Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Absolute viscosity for water in centipoises for temperatures between 32 - 200oF.

### Water - Max. Suction Flow Velocities vs. Pipe Size

Recommended max. water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps.

### Water Flow - Max. Delivery Velocities vs. Pipe Size

Recommended maximum flow velocities in water systems on the delivery side of the pump.

### Water Flow in Tubes - Reynolds Number

Reynolds number for clean cold water flow.

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