A water-distribution pipe is located inside a building and delivers potable water to the fixtures. The supply system delivering water from the potable source to the building is the "water service" pipe.
The water distribution system includes normally both hot and cold water. The temperature range limits the materials allowed.
- it is common to rate water-distribution pipes for a minimum working pressure of aprox. 100 psi (7 bar) and 180oF (80oC)
It the the water-service to the building exceeds the rated water-distribution pressure, a pressure-reducing valve must be installed.
Commonly used and approved materials in water-distribution pipe lines are
- Copper tube
- Galvanized steel pipe
- PB - polybutene
- PEX - cross-linked Polyethylene
Water Distribution Pipes
Materials used for water distribution pipes according US standards.
|Piping Material||US Standards|
|Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubing||ASTM D2846; ASTM F441; ASTM F442; CSA B137.6|
|Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride/aluminum/chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC/AL/CPVC)||ASTM F2855|
|Copper or copper-alloy pipe||ASTM B42; ASTM B302; ASTM B43|
|Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM)||ASTM B75; ASTM B88; ASTM B251; ASTM B447|
|Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing||ASTM F876; CSA B137.5|
|Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipe||ASTM F1281; ASTM F2262; CSA B137.10|
|Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE)||ASTM F1986|
|Ductile iron pipe||AWWA C151/A21.51; AWWA C115/A21.15|
|Galvanized steel pipe||ASTM A53|
|Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) composite pipe||ASTM F1282|
|Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) plastic tubing||ASTM F2769; CSA B137.158|
|Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing||ASTM F2389; CSA B137.11|
|Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L)||ASTM A312; ASTM A778|
|Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/316L)||ASTM A312; ASTM A778|
Hot and cold water service systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more.
The working pressure and temperature limits of ASME Code B31.9 - Building Services Piping.
Dimensions of PEX tubes.
Introduction to general design of domestic service water supply systems - with pressurized or gravity tanks.
Friction head loss (ftH2O per 100 ft pipe) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation.
Pressure loss in hoses due to water flow and friction.
Recommended dimensions hot and cold water pipes.
Hot water can be circulated through a return pipe if it's instantly required at the fixtures.
Polyethylene pipe dimensions according European Standards.
Nominal pipe size, outside diameter, wall thickness, weight and working pressure.
Water service pipe lines extends from the potable water source to the interior of buildings.
Calculating expected demand for water supply service lines.
WSFU is used to calculate water supply service systems.
Sizing water supply service and distribution lines based on Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU).
Sizing of water supply pipe lines.
Typiclal limits for impurities in drinking water.
Free online tool for designing water supply systems in buildings.