Thermodynamic properties of water:
- Boiling temperature (at 101.325 kPa): 99.974 °C = 211.953 °F
- Bulk modulus elasticity: 2.15 x 109 Pa or N/m2
- Critical temperature: 373.946 °C = 705.103 °F
- Critical pressure: 217.7 atm = 220.6 bar = 22.06 MPa (MN/m2) = 3200 psi (=lbf/in2)
- Critical density: 0.322 g/cm3 = 0.62478 slug/ft3 = 20.1018 lbm/ft3
- Ionization constant, pKw (at 25°C): 13.995
- Latent heat of melting: 334 kJ/kg = 144 Btu(IT)/lb
- Latent heat of evaporation(at 100°C): 40.657 kJ/mol = 2256 kJ/kg = 970 Btu(IT)/lb
- Maximum density (at 4 oC): 999.975 kg/m3 = 1.9403 slug/ft3 = 8.34519 lbm/gal(US)
- Melting temperature (at 101.325 kPa): 0 °C = 32°F
- Molar mass: 18.01527 g/mol
- pH (at 25°C): 6.9976
- Specific heat (Cp) water (at 15°C/60°F): 4.187 kJ/kgK = 1.001 Btu(IT)/(lbm °F) or kcal/(kg K)
- Specific heat ice: 2.108 kJ/kgK = 0.5035 Btu(IT)/(lbm °F) or kcal/(kg K)
- Specific heat water vapor: 1.996 kJ/kgK =0.4767 Btu(IT)/(lbm °F) or kcal/(kg K)
- Specific Weight (at 4 oC): 9.806 kN/m3 = 62.43 lbf/ft3
- Thermal expansion from 4 oC to 100 oC: 4.2x10-2 (Note! - volumetric temperature expansion of water is not linear with temperature)
- Triple point pressure: 0.00604 atm = 0.00612 bar = 611.657 Pa = 0.08871 psi (=lbf/in2)
- Triple point temperature: 0.01 °C = 32.02 °F
Follow the links below to get values for the listed properties of liquid water at varying pressure and temperature:
- Boiling points at high pressure
- Boiling points at vacuum pressure
- Density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient
- Dynamic and kinematic viscosity
- Enthalpy and entropy
- Heat of vaporization
- Ionization Constant, pKw, of normal and heavy water
- Melting points at high pressure
- Prandtl number
- Properties at gas-liquid equilibrium condition
- Saturation pressure
- Specific gravity
- Specific heat (heat capacity)
- Specific volume
- Thermal conductivity
- Thermal diffusivity
For each topic, there are figures and tables showing the variations in properties with temperature. Calculators giving the properties at specified temperatures are also available. All properties are given in both SI and imperial units.
See also more about atmospheric pressure, and STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure & NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure,
as well as Thermophysical properties of: Acetone, Acetylene, Air, Ammonia, Argon, Benzene, Butane, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Ethane, Ethanol, Ethylene, Helium, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Methane, Methanol, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Pentane, Propane, Toluene and Heavy water, D2O.
Densities of solids, liquids and gases. Definitions and convertion calculators.
Climate, meteorology, sun, wind and environmental related engineering resources.
Material properties of gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.
Steam & condensate systems- properties, capacities, pipe sizing, systems configuration and more.
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of acetone, also called 2-propanone, dimethyl ketone and pyroacetic acid. Phase diagram included.
Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Ammonia. Phase diagram included.
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of benzene, also called benzol. Phase diagram included.
Figures and table with changes in Prandtl number for carbon dioxide with changes in temperature and pressure.
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of carbon dioxide. Phase diagram included.
Specific volume, enthalpy and entropy of compressed water.
An introduction to density, specific weight and specific gravity.
Density and specific volume of dry air and water vapor at temperatures ranging 225 to 900 degF (107 to 482 degC).
Electric heating of an object or mass - temperature change vs. energy supplied.
Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Ethane - C2H6.
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethylene, also called ethene, acetene and olefiant gas. Phase diagram included.
Evaporation of water from a water surface - like a swimming pool or an open tank - depends on water temperature, air temperature, air humidity and air velocity above the water surface - online calculator.
Evaporative cooling tutorial.
Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] for several gases in water.
The Great Sensible Heat Factor is the ratio sensible to total heat in a cooling coil.
The amount of heat required to change the temperature of a substance by one degree.
Water can be heated by injecting steam.
Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) like density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.
Thermal and thermodynamic properties of ice like density, thermal conductivity and specific heat at temperatures from 0 to -100 oC.
Online calculator, figures and tables with melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Latent heat is the heat when supplied to or removed from air results in a change in moisture content - the temperature of the air is not changed.
Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity and Prandtls no. of liquid ammonia at saturation pressure.
Densities of common liquids like acetone, beer, oil, water and more.
Densities and specific volume of liquids vs. pressure and temperature change.
Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Methane - CH4. Phase diagram included.
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of methanol, CH3OH (also called carbinol, wood alcohol, hydroxy methyl and methyl alcohol). Phase diagram included.
Final mass and temperature when mixing fluids.
Sensible and latent heat of moist air.
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of pentane, also called n-pentane. Phase diagram included.
Heat emission from steam or water heating pipes submerged in oil or fat - forced and natural circulation.
A dimensionless number approximating the ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity.
Calculate the energy cost of pumping water.
Thermodynamic properties of saturated ice and steam - specific volume, enthalpy and entropy.
Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures.
Carbonates dissolved in water.
Carbonates dissolved in water.
Online specific heat converter with the most commonly used units.
Standardized enthalpies and entropies for some common substances.
Absolute viscosity of steam at pressure ranging 1 - 10000 psia.
Basic steam thermodynamics - entropy diagram.
Undercooled water and vapor pressure.
Common thermodynamic terms and functions - potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal or internal energy, chemical energy, nuclear energy and more.
The entropy of a substance is zero if the absolute temperature is zero.
Volumetric temperature expansion calculator.
Absolute viscosity for water in centipoises for temperatures between 32 - 200oF.
Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.
Definitions, online calculator and figures and tables with water properties like density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 680°F).
Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.
Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables.
Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).
Liquid water properties at temperatures between melting point and boiling point and pressures of 14.7 psia, 1000 psia and 10000 psia (1 atm, 68.1atm and 681 atm).
Vapor pressure and specific weight of water at temperatures ranging 32 to 212 oF - Imperial Units.
Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units.
Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
Figures and tables with thermal diffusivity of liquids and gaseous water at varying temperarures and pressures - SI and Imperial units.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Specific heat of Water Vapor - H2O - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K.
Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam.