The heat supplied to a mass can be expressed as
dQ = m c dt (1)
dQ = heat supplied (J, kJ Btu)
m = unit mass (g, kg, lb)
c = specific heat (J/g K, kJ/kg o C, kJ/kg K, Btu/lb o F)
dt = temperature change (K, C ° , o F)
(1) can be transferred to express Specific Heat as:
c = dQ / m dt (1b)
Example: The specific heat of iron is 0.45 J/(g K), which means that it takes 0.45 Joules of heat to raise one gram of iron by one degree Kelvin.
Download and print Heat supplied vs. Specfic heat and change in Temperature chart
Specific Heat Gases
There are two definitions of Specific Heat for vapors and gases:
c p = (δh / δT) p - Specific Heat at constant pressure (J/gK)
c v = ( δh / δT) v - Specific Heat at constant volume (J/gK)
For solids and liquids, c p = c v
Use the links to see tabulated values of specific heat of gases , common liquids and fluids , food and foodstuff , metals and semimetals , common solids and other common substances .
The individual individual gas constant , R, can be expressed as
R = c p - c v (2)
Ratio of Specific Heat
The Ratio of Specific Heat is expressed as
k = c p / c v (3)
Molar Heat Capacity ( C p ) is the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of one mol of a substance by one degree at constant pressure.
It is expressed in joules per moles per degrees Kelvin (or Celsius), J/(mol K) .
Example: The molar heat capacity of iron is 25.10 J/(mol K), which means that it takes 25.10 Joules of heat to raise 1 mol of iron by 1 degree Kelvin.
Tabulated values of molar heat capacity, C p, of a lot of organic and inorganic substances can be found in Standard enthalpy of formation, Gibbs free energy of formation, entropy and molar heat capacity of organic substances and Standard state and enthalpy of formation, Gibbs free energy of formation, entropy and heat capacity , together with ΔH° f , ΔG° f and S° for the same substances at 25°C.
Converting between Specific heat and Molar heat capacity
The specific heat capacity can be calculated from the molar heat capacity, and vise versa:
c p = C p / M and
C p = c p . M
c p = specific heat capacity
C p = molar heat capacity
M = molar weight of the actual substance (g/mol).
Example: Methanol (with molecular formula CH3OH) has a molar heat capacity, C p , of 81.1 J/(mol K). What is the specific heat capacity, c p ?
First, we calculate (or find ) the molar weight of methanol: 1*12.01g/mol C + 4*1.008g/mol H + 1*16.00g/mol O = 32.04 g/mol CH 3 OH
Then, the specific heat capacity of methanol is: c p = 81.8 J/(molK) / 32.04 g/mol = 2.53 J/(g K)
Converting between commonly used Units
2 kg of aluminum is heated from 20 o C to 100 o C . Specific heat of aluminum is 0.91 kJ/kg 0 C and the heat required can be calculated as
dQ = (2 kg) (0.91 kJ/kg 0 C) ((100 o C) - (20 o C))
= 145.6 (kJ)
One liter of water is heated from 0 o C to boiling 100 o C . Specific heat of water is 4.19 kJ/kg 0 C and the heat required can be calculated as
dQ = (1 litre) (1 kg/litre) (4.19 kJ/kg 0 C) ((100 o C) - (0 o C))
= 419 (kJ)
= 419 (kWs) (1/3600 h/s)
= 0.12 kWh
The SI-system, unit converters, physical constants, drawing scales and more.
Material properties of gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.
Work, heat and energy systems.
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of acetone, also called 2-propanone, dimethyl ketone and pyroacetic acid. Phase diagram included.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat, CP and CV, of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 100 bara (14.5 - 1450 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of benzene, also called benzol. Phase diagram included.
Online calculators, figures and tables showing specific heat, Cp and Cv, of gasous and liquid butane, C4H10, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
Heat of combustion (energy content) for som common substances - with examples how to calculate heat of combustion.
The amount of thermal energy stored in heated water.
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethylene, also called ethene, acetene and olefiant gas. Phase diagram included.
Specific heat of common food and foodstuff like apples, bass, beef, pork and many more.
Ratios of specific heat for gases with constant pressure and volume processes.
Specific heat at constant volume, specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat ratio and individual gas constant - R - common gases as argon, air, ether, nitrogen and many more.
Heat vs. work vs. energy.
Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) like density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.
Specific heats for some common liquids and fluids - acetone, oil, paraffin, water and many more.
Specific heat of commonly used metals like aluminum, iron, mercury and many more - imperial and SI units.
Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of nitrogen at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
For oxygen containing organic compounds this is given: pKa (the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant), molecular structures, molar weights, density and melting and boiling points.
Common solids - like brick, cement, glass and many more - and their specific heats - in Imperial and SI units.
Specific heat of products like wet mud, granite, sandy clay, quartz sand and more.
The standard enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, entropy and molar heat capacity are tabulated for more than hundred organic substances.
Definition and explanation of the terms standard state and standard enthalpy of formation, with listing of values for standard enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation, as well as standard entropy and molar heat capacity, of 370 inorganic compounds.
Internationally agreed, internally consistent, values for the thermodynamic properties (standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and [H°(298)-H°(0)]) of key chemical substances.
Common thermodynamic terms and functions - potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal or internal energy, chemical energy, nuclear energy and more.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.
Thermal properties of water at different temperatures like density, freezing temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of melting, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.
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