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Vacuum

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The vacuum level is the difference in pressure between atmospheric pressure and pressure in the evacuated system:

  • 0% vacuum = 760 torr = 14.7 psia = 29.92 inc mercury abs = 101.4 kPa abs
  • 50% vacuum = 380 torr = 7.3 psia = 15 inc mercury abs = 50.8 kPa abs
  • 99.9% vacuum = 1 torr = 0.01934 psia = 0.03937 inc mercury abs = 1.3 kPa abs

For perfect vacuum (100%) - the pressure is 0 torr, 0 psia or 0 Pa abs.

Vacuum versus Absolute Air Pressure

Example - Vacuum

If the absolute pressure is 60 kPa the vacuum according the diagram above is approximately 40 % - or approximately 450 Torr .

Vacuum Ranges

  • atmospheric pressure - 760 torr
  • low vacuum - 760 to 25 torr
  • medium vacuum - 25 to 10 -3 torr
  • high vacuum - 10 -3 to 10 -9 torr
  • ultra high vacuum - 10 -9 to 10 -12 torr
  • extremely high vacuum - < 10 -12 torr
  • perfect vacuum - 0 torr <
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Elevation above sea level - in feet and meter - with barometric and atmospheric pressure - inches mercury, psia, kg/cm2 and kPa.

Vacuum - Air Expansion Ratio

Convert vacuum air volume to standard air volume

Vacuum - Evacuation Time

Vacuum pumps - calculate flow rate and required evacuation time.

Vacuum - Flow Measurement

Measure air volume flow in vacuum.

Vacuum - Pressure Units Converter

Converting between vacuum units like % vacuum - mm Mercury - psi - torr - micron - kPa.

Vacuum Pipes - Flow Velocities

Air velocity diagrams for vacuum pipe lines.

Vacuum Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Air Flow

Calculate pressure drops in vacuum pipe lines.

Vacuum Pumps - Exhaust Pipe Capacities

Capacities of vacuum pump exhaust pipes.

Water - Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.

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