p 2 = 0.1 (MN/m 2 , 10 6 Pa)
A 2 / A 1 = 0.01
h = 10 (m)
can be calculated as
V 2 = ( (2 / (1 - (0.01) 2 ) ((0.2 10 6 N/m 2 ) - (0.1 10 6 N/m 2 )) / (1000 kg/m 3 ) + (9.81 m/s 2 ) (10 m))) 1/2
= 19.9 m/s
When fluid flows through a reduction valve and the pressure is reduced - there is an energy loss. By neglecting the change in elevation (h 1 = h 2 ) and the change in fluid velocity (v 1 = v 2 ) the pressure energy before the valve and the pressure energy after the valve including the energy loss through the valve - is constant. The Bernouilli equation can be modified to
p 1 / ρ = p 2 / ρ + E loss (8)
E loss = energy loss through valve (J)
(8) can be transformed to:
E loss = ( p 1 - p 2 ) / ρ (8b)
Flow metering principles - Orifice, Venturi, Flow Nozzles, Pitot Tubes, Target, Variable Area, Positive Displacement, Turbine, Vortex, Electromagnetic, Ultrasonic Doppler, Ultrasonic Time-of-travel, Mass Coriolis, Mass Thermal, Weir V-notch, Flume Parshall and Sluice Gate flow meters and more.
The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involving velocity, pressure, density and temperature as functions of space and time.
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Equations used in fluid mechanics - like Bernoulli, conservation of energy, conservation of mass, pressure, Navier-Stokes, ideal gas law, Euler equations, Laplace equations, Darcy-Weisbach Equation and more.
The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation.
An introduction to the different types of fluid flowmeters - Orifices, Venturies, Nozzles, Rotameters, Pitot Tubes, Calorimetrics, Turbine, Vortex, Electromagnetic, Doppler, Ultrasonic, Thermal, Coriolis.
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The Mechanical Energy Equation compared to the Extended Bernoulli Equation.
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Steam flow through orifices - for steam pressures ranging 2 - 300 psi
Steam leaks through orifices for pressures ranging 250 - 600 psi
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