# Steam and Condensate

## Steam & condensate systems- properties, capacities, pipe sizing, systems configuration and more.

### • Control Valves and Equipment

Sizing and dimensions of control valves & equipment in steam and condensate systems.

### • Flash Steam

Flash steam generation - thermodynamic fundamentals, heat loss, energy recovery and more.

### • Heat Loss and Insulation

Steam and condensate pipes - heat loss uninsulated and insulated pipes, insulation thickness and more.

### • Pipe Sizing

Sizing of steam and condensate pipe lines - pressure loss, recommended velocity, capacity and more.

### • Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics of steam and condensate systems.

### Air - Humidifying with Steam - Imperial Units

Estimate the amount of steam required (lb/h in 100 cfm) in humid air.

### Air - Humidifying with Steam, SI units

Using steam to humidify air.

### Air - Moisture Holding Capacity vs. Temperature

The moisture holding capacity of air increases with temperature.

### Air and Steam Mixture

Air in the steam will lower the surface temperatures in heat exchangers - and less heat will be transferred.

### ASME - International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

The International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code safety rules governing design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels, and nuclear power plant components during construction.

### Boiler Blowdown

Suspended solids in the feed water will remain in the boiler when steam is generated.

### Boiler Blowdown Rate

Calculate boiler blowdown rate.

### Boilers - Classification

Classification of boilers according the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

### Condensate Generated in Cold Steam Pipes - SI Units

Huge amounts of condensate are generated when cold steam pipes are heated up must be drained from the pipes.

### Condensate Generated in Cold Steam Pipes - Sizing of Steam Traps

When cold steam pipes are heated up they generate huge amounts of condensate that must be drained away from the pipe through steam traps - in Imperial Units.

###
Condensate Pipe Lines - Capacities *(kW)*

Maximum capacities for condensate pipe lines in *kW* steam consumption.

### Condensate Pipe Lines - Friction Resistance Imperial Units

Friction or major resistance in condensate pipe lines.

### Condensate Pipe Lines - Sizing

Flow and pressure loss in condensate return lines - SI Units.

### Condensate Pumping

High temperatures and danger of impeller cavitation is the major challenge for condensate pumping in steam systems.

### Feed Water - Chemistry Limits

ABMA recommended feed water chemistry limits for steam boilers.

### Feed Water Treatment to Avoid Corrosion

Make-up water to steam boilers should be treated with oxygen scavengers to avoid serious corrosion problems.

### Feeding Pumps in Steam Systems - Suction Lift Head vs. Temperature

Cavitation of impellers increases with water temperatures.

###
Flash Steam Generation - Imperial Units *(psig)*

When condensate passes steam traps - flash steam is generated.

### Flash Steam Generation - SI-units

When condensate leaves the steam traps - flash steam is generated. Amount of flash steam generated at different pressures - *kN/m ^{2}*.

###
Flash Steam Generation *(bar)*

The amount of flash steam generated depends on steam pressure and pressure in the condensate lines.

###
Flow Coefficient *C*_{v} vs. Flow Factor *K*_{v}

_{v}

_{v}

Comparing flow coefficients *C _{v}* to flow factors

*K*

_{v}.

### Fluid Heat Transfer Coefficients in Heat Exchanger Surface Combinations

Average overall heat transmission coefficients for fluid and surface combinations like Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more.

### Gases Solved in Water - Diffusion Coefficients

Diffusion flux [kg/m^{2}s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m^{2}/s] for several gases in water.

### Heating Systems - Steam and Condensate Loads

Calculating steam and condensate loads in steam heated systems.

### Heavy Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D_{2}O) like density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.

### Ice and Water - Melting Points vs. Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables with melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

### Insulated Steam Pipes - Condensate Generated

Heat loss from steam pipes generates condensate which must be drained from the system - imperial units.

###
Insulated Steam Pipes - Condensate Generated *(kg/h per 100m)*

Heat loss from steam pipes generates condensate which must be drained from the system.

###
Liquid, Steam and Gas - Flow Coefficients *C*_{v}

_{v}

Calculate flow coefficients for the design of control valves - Imperial units.

### Low Pressure Steam Pressure Drop

Typical pressure drop in low pressure steam lines.

### Low Pressure Steam Safety Valves - Capacities

Sizing safety valves after boiler output power in low pressure systems *(kW and Btu/hr)*.

### NDT - Non Destructive Testing

Non-destructive construction testing.

### Oil Filled Tanks - Heat Loss

Heat loss from insulated and uninsulated, sheltered and exposed heated oil tanks.

### Pipes and Tubes - Temperature Expansion

Pipes expands when heated and contracts when cooled and the expansion can be expressed with the expansion equation.

### Pipes Submerged in Oil or Fat - Heat Emission

Heat emission from steam or water heating pipes submerged in oil or fat - forced and natural circulation.

### Pipes Submerged in Water - Heat Emission

Heat emision from steam or water heating pipes submerged in water - assisted (forced) or natural circulation.

### Properties of Saturated Steam - SI Units

Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific enthalpy and specific entropy.

### Saturated Steam - Properties for Pressure in Bar

Saturated Steam Table with properties like boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization.

### Saturated Steam - Properties with Imperial Units

Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures.

###
Sizing of Steam Pipes *(kg/h)*

Steam is a compressible gas where pipe line mass flow capacity depends on steam pressure.

###
Sizing of Steam Pipes *(lb/h)*

Steam is a compressible gas where the capacity of a pipe line depends on the size of the pipe and the steam pressure.

### Soft or Hard Water

Carbonates dissolved in water.

### Steam Boiler Rating vs. Feed Water Temperature

Boiler output vs. feed water temperature.

### Steam Consumption for some Typical Steam Heated Consumers

Steam consumption rates for typical steam heated consumers in industries like bakeries, breweries, paper factories etc.

###
Steam Control Valves - Calculate Flow Factor *K*_{v}

_{v}

Designing steam control valves and their *K _{v}* values.

### Steam Heating Processes - Load Calculating

Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes.

### Steam Heating Systems - Classifications

Steam systems carries heat through pipes from the boiler to consumers as heat exchangers, process equipment etc.

### Steam Heating Systems - Design

An introduction to the basic design of steam heating systems.

### Steam Pipes - Heat Losses over a Year

Yearly heat loss in amount of coal or oil consumption for insulated and uninsulated steam pipes at different dimensions and operation times.

### Steam Pipes - Heat Losses

The amount of condensate generated in a steam pipe depends on the heat loss from the pipe to the surroundings.

###
Steam Pipes - Heat Losses *(W/m)*

Heat losses from un-insulated steam pipes.

### Steam Pipes - Installation of Drip Legs

Properly draining steam pipes for condensate.

### Steam Pipes - Max. Flow and Pressure Drop

Pressure drop and maximum allowable flow in steam pipes.

### Steam Pipes - Online Pressure drop Calculator

Calculate pressure drops in steam distribution pipe lines.

### Steam Pipes - Sizing

Sizing of steam pipe lines - major and minor loss in steam distribution systems.

### Steam Pipes - Thermal Expansion

Thermal expansion of steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperature (mm pr. 100 m pipe).

### Steam Radiators and Convectors - Heating Capacities

Steam radiators and steam convectors - heating capacities and temperature coefficients.

### Steam Tracing of Pipe Lines

Steam tracing of pipe lines can be done to maintain appropriate product temperatures.

### Steam Trap Selection Guide

Steam trap selection guide - Float & Thermostatic, Inverted Bucket, Bimetal Thermostatic, Impulse and Thermodynamic Disc steam traps.

### Superheated Steam - Entropy

The entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above saturation points.

###
Thermal Expansion of Steam Pipes - *inches*

Expansion of steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperature.

### Vapor and Steam

An introduction to vapor and steam.

### Water - Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficients

Definitions, online calculator and figures and tables with water properties like density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 680°F).

### Water - Dynamic (Absolute) and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Free online calculator - figures and tables with viscosity of water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 675°F) - Imperial and SI Units.

### Water - Enthalpy and Entropy vs. Temperature

Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units.

### Water - Heat of Vaporization vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.

###
Water - Ionization Constant, pK_{w}, of Normal and Heavy Water

Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables.

### Water - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).

### Water - Saturation Pressure vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables with water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging 0 to 370 °C (32 to 700°F) - in Imperial and SI Units.

### Water - Specific Gravity vs. Temperature

Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference.

### Water - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Specific Volume vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units.

### Water - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature

Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with thermal diffusivity of liquids and gaseous water at varying temperarures and pressures - SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of water at different temperatures like density, freezing temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of melting, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.

### Water Boiling Points at Higher Pressures

Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

### Water vs. Steam - Critical and Triple Points

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

### Water-Steam Mollier Diagram

Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam.

### Wet Steam - Quality vs. Dryness Fractions

Introduction and definition of steam quality and dryness fraction including calculating wet steam enthalpy and specific volume.