Steam & condensate systems- properties, capacities, pipe sizing, systems configuration and more.
Sizing and dimensions of control valves & equipment in steam and condensate systems.
Flash steam generation - thermodynamic fundamentals, heat loss, energy recovery and more.
Steam and condensate pipes - heat loss uninsulated and insulated pipes, insulation thickness and more.
Sizing of steam and condensate pipe lines - pressure loss, recommended velocity, capacity and more.
Thermodynamics of steam and condensate systems.
Estimate the amount of steam required (lb/h in 100 cfm) in humid air.
Using steam to humidify air.
The moisture holding capacity of air increases with temperature.
Air in the steam will lower the surface temperatures in heat exchangers - and less heat will be transferred.
The International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code safety rules governing design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels, and nuclear power plant components during construction.
Suspended solids in the feed water will remain in the boiler when steam is generated.
Calculate boiler blowdown rate.
ABMA recommended feed water chemistry limits for steam boilers.
Classification of boilers according the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
Huge amounts of condensate are generated when cold steam pipes are heated up must be drained from the pipes.
When cold steam pipes are heated up they generate huge amounts of condensate that must be drained away from the pipe through steam traps - in Imperial Units.
Friction or major resistance in condensate pipe lines.
Flow and pressure loss in condensate return lines - SI Units.
High temperatures and danger of impeller cavitation is the major challenge for condensate pumping in steam systems.
Cavitation of impellers increases with water temperatures.
Make-up water to steam boilers should be treated with oxygen scavengers to avoid serious corrosion problems.
When condensate passes steam traps - flash steam is generated.
When condensate leaves the steam traps - flash steam is generated. Amount of flash steam generated at different pressures - kN/m2.
Comparing flow coefficients Cv to flow factors Kv.
Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] for several gases in water.
Average overall heat transmission coefficients for fluid and surface combinations like Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more.
Calculating steam and condensate loads in steam heated systems.
Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) like density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.
Online calculator, figures and tables with melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Heat loss from steam pipes generates condensate which must be drained from the system - imperial units.
Heat loss from steam pipes generates condensate which must be drained from the system.
Calculate flow coefficients for the design of control valves - Imperial units.
Typical pressure drop in low pressure steam lines.
Sizing safety valves after boiler output power in low pressure systems (kW and Btu/hr).
Non-destructive construction testing.
Heat loss from insulated and uninsulated, sheltered and exposed heated oil tanks.
Pipes expands when heated and contracts when cooled and the expansion can be expressed with the expansion equation.
Heat emission from steam or water heating pipes submerged in oil or fat - forced and natural circulation.
Heat emision from steam or water heating pipes submerged in water - assisted (forced) or natural circulation.
Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific enthalpy and specific entropy.
Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures.
Saturated Steam Table with properties like boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization.
Steam is a compressible gas where pipe line mass flow capacity depends on steam pressure.
Steam is a compressible gas where the capacity of a pipe line depends on the size of the pipe and the steam pressure.
Carbonates dissolved in water.
Maximum capacities for condensate pipe lines in kW steam consumption.
Boiler output vs. feed water temperature.
Steam consumption rates for typical steam heated consumers in industries like bakeries, breweries, paper factories etc.
Designing steam control valves and their Kv values.
The amount of flash steam generated depends on steam pressure and pressure in the condensate lines.
Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes.
Steam systems carries heat through pipes from the boiler to consumers as heat exchangers, process equipment etc.
An introduction to the basic design of steam heating systems.
Yearly heat loss in amount of coal or oil consumption for insulated and uninsulated steam pipes at different dimensions and operation times.
The amount of condensate generated in a steam pipe depends on the heat loss from the pipe to the surroundings.
Heat losses from un-insulated steam pipes.
Properly draining steam pipes for condensate.
Pressure drop and maximum allowable flow in steam pipes.
Calculate pressure drops in steam distribution pipe lines.
Sizing of steam pipe lines - major and minor loss in steam distribution systems.
Thermal expansion of steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperature (mm pr. 100 m pipe).
Steam radiators and steam convectors - heating capacities and temperature coefficients.
Steam tracing of pipe lines can be done to maintain appropriate product temperatures.
Steam trap selection guide - Float & Thermostatic, Inverted Bucket, Bimetal Thermostatic, Impulse and Thermodynamic Disc steam traps.
The entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above saturation points.
Expansion of steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperature.
An introduction to vapor and steam.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.
Definitions, online calculator and figures and tables with water properties like density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 680°F).
Free online calculator - figures and tables with viscosity of water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 675°F) - Imperial and SI Units.
Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.
Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables.
Figures and tables with Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).
Online calculator, figures and tables with water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging 0 to 370 °C (32 to 700°F) - in Imperial and SI Units.
Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units.
Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
Figures and tables with thermal diffusivity of liquids and gaseous water at varying temperarures and pressures - SI and Imperial units.
Thermal properties of water at different temperatures like density, freezing temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of melting, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.
Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam.
Introduction and definition of steam quality and dryness fraction including calculating wet steam enthalpy and specific volume.