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Wood Hardness

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For wood hardness is a measure of resistance to dent and wear.

The Janka test measures the force (N, lbf) required to embed an 11.28 mm steel ball into the wood half the ball's diameter. Larger force - harder wood.

The Janka Hardness Values and Hardness Grades for some common Wood Species

Wood Hardness Grades
WoodJanka Hardness
Hardness Grades
Brazilian Ebony 16420 Exceedingly hard
Ipe 16390
Cumaru 15470
Ebony 14300 Extremely hard
Golden Teak 10400
Merbau 8560 Very hard
Hickory 8100
Rosewood 7900 Hard
White Oak 6000
Ash 5900 Rather hard
Birch 5600
Teak 5140
English Oak 5000 Firm
Burmese Teak 4600
Black Walnut 4500
Cherry 4200
Mahogany 3600
Douglas Fir 2900 Soft
Alder 2600
Chestnut 2400
Poplar 2400
Hemlock 2200
White Pine 1900 Very soft
Balsa 310
  • 1 N = 0.2248 lbf
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Brinell Hardness Number - BHN

The Brinell hardness test of metals and alloys.

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Comparing sandpaper grit size and surface roughness.

Hardwood and Softwood Species

Species of hardwood vs. softwood.

Hardwood and Softwoods - Recommended Drill Bit Speeds

Hardwood and softwood drill speed chart.

Hardwood Lumber - Dimensions

Sizing of hardwood lumber.

Lumber - Weights

Weights of green, kiln dried and pressure treated lumber boards.

Machine Stress Rated (MSR) and Machine Evaluated (MEL) Lumber

Grading of lumber in North America

Mineral Hardness - Mohs Scale

The Mohs qualitative ordinal scale characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals.

Nails and Spikes - Withdrawal Force

Allowable withdrawal load for nail and spikes.

Softwood and Hardwood - Structural Strength Classes

Strength classes, bending stress and mean density of hardwood and softwood

Structural Lumber - Section Sizes

Basic size, area, moments of inertia and section modulus for timber - metric units.

Structural Lumber - Properties

Properties of structural lumber.

Tree Species - Water Demand

Trees species and relative water demand.

Urban Tree Heights

Height of trees commonly used in towns and urban areas.

Wood - Compressive Strength vs. Moisture Content

Red Spruce, Longleaf Pine and Douglas Fir - moisture content and their compressive strength.

Wood - Density vs. Moisture Content

The density of wood versus moisture content.

Wood Headers - Max. Supported Weight

Weight supported by a double or triple wood headers.

Wood Species - Densities

Densities of various wood species - apple, ash, cedar, elm and more.

Wood, Panel and Structural Timber Products - Mechanical Properties

Density, fibre stress, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of clear wood, panel and structural timber products.

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