Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

This is an AMP page - Open full page! for all features.

• the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!

# Nails and Spikes - Withdrawal Force

Allowable withdrawal load or force for a common nail or spike driven into side grain perpendicular to the fibers of seasoned wood (or wet unseasoned wood) can be estimated as

F = 1380 SG5/2 D                       (1)

where

F = allowable withdrawal load or force per inch of penetration (lb/in)

SG = specific gravity of oven dry wood

D = diameter of nail or spike (inches)

### Example - Nail Withdrawal Load

The specific gravity of Canadian Spruce is 0.45. The diameter of 20D nail is 0.203 inches. The allowable withdrawal force per inch of penetration can be estimated as

F = 1380 (0.45)5/2 (0.203 in)

=  38 lb/in (lb per inch penetration)

### Allowable Withdrawal Forces for some Common US Wire Nails

- for Spruce with specific gravity 0.5

Nails and Spikes - Withdrawal Force - US Wire Nails
SizeLength
(in)
Allowable Withdrawal Force
(lb)
2d 1 17.6
3d 25.3
4d 39.9
5d 46.5
6d 2 58.5
8d 81.7
10d 3 108
12d 117
16d 141
20d 4 198
30d 242
40d 5 290
60d 6 348

### Allowable Withdrawal Forces for some Common Metric  Wire Nails

- for Spruce with specific gravity 0.5

Nails and Spikes - Withdrawal Forcecaption - Metric  Wire Nails
Length
(mm)
Diameter
(mm)
Allowable Withdrawal Force
(N)
20 1.2 40.4 (4.12 kg)
25 1.4 58.9 (6 kg)
30 1.6 80.8 (8.23 kg)
35 1.6 94.2 (9.61 kg)
35 1.8 106 (10.8 kg)
40 2.0 135 (13.7 kg)
45 2.2 167 (17 kg)
50 2.2 185 (18.9 kg)
55 2.2 204 (20.8 kg)
55 2.5 231 (23.6 kg)
60 2.5 252 (25.7 kg)
60 2.8 283 (28.8 kg)
65 2.8 306 (31.2 kg)
65 3.1 339 (34.6 kg)
70 3.1 365 (37.2 kg)
80 3.1 417 (42.5 kg)
80 3.4 458 (46.7 kg)
90 3.4 515 (52.5 kg)
90 3.8 575 (58.7 kg)
100 3.8 639 (65.2 kg)
100 4.2 707 (72 kg)

## Related Topics

### • Miscellaneous

Engineering related topics like Beaufort Wind Scale, CE-marking, drawing standards and more.

## Related Documents

### Drill Bits - Conversion Chart

Convert between drill bit dimensions - gauge numbers, inches and mm.

### Nails and Spikes - Metric Dimensions

Nails and spikes - commonly used metric sizes.

### Nails and Spikes - US Standard Dimensions

US common wire standard nail and spikes sizes and dimensions - Imperial Units.

### Structural Lumber - Properties

Properties of structural lumber.

### US Wood Screws - Nominal Sizes

Wood screws - nominal sizes vs. diameters.

### US Wood Screws - Pilot Holes

Hard wood and soft wood pilot holes, shank clearance holes and countersink diameters.

### Wood Beams - Strength of Material

Bending and compression strength of wood species used in beams.

### Wood Hardness

Soft and hardwood - the Janka Hardness scale.

### Wood Headers - Max. Supported Weight

Weight supported by a double or triple wood headers.

### Wood Species - Densities

Densities of various wood species - apple, ash, cedar, elm and more.

### Wood Species - Moisture Content and Weight

Weight of green and air-dried fire wood.

## Search Engineering ToolBox

• the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!

## SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro . Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the Sketchup Extension Warehouse!