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Wood Hardness

Soft and hardwood - the Janka Hardness scale.

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For wood hardness is a measure of resistance to dent and wear.

The Janka test measures the force (N, lbf) required to embed an 11.28 mm steel ball into the wood half the ball's diameter. Larger force - harder wood.

The Janka Hardness Values and Hardness Grades for some common Wood Species

Wood Hardness Grades
WoodJanka Hardness
(N)
Hardness Grades
Brazilian Ebony 16420 Exceedingly hard
Ipe 16390
Cumaru 15470
Ebony 14300 Extremely hard
Golden Teak 10400
Merbau 8560 Very hard
Hickory 8100
Rosewood 7900 Hard
White Oak 6000
Ash 5900 Rather hard
Birch 5600
Teak 5140
English Oak 5000 Firm
Burmese Teak 4600
Black Walnut 4500
Cherry 4200
Mahogany 3600
Douglas Fir 2900 Soft
Alder 2600
Chestnut 2400
Poplar 2400
Hemlock 2200
White Pine 1900 Very soft
Balsa 310
  • 1 N = 0.2248 lbf
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