Young's Modulus, Tensile Strength and Yield Strength Values for some Materials
Young's Modulus (or Tensile Modulus alt. Modulus of Elasticity) and Ultimate Tensile Strength and Yield Strength for materials like steel, glass, wood and many more.
Tensile Modulus  or Young's Modulus alt. Modulus of Elasticity  is a measure of stiffness of an elastic material. It is used to describe the elastic properties of objects like wires, rods or columns when they are stretched or compressed.
Tensile Modulus is defined as the
"ratio of stress (force per unit area) along an axis to strain (ratio of deformation over initial length) along that axis"
It can be used to predict the elongation or compression of an object as long as the stress is less than the yield strength of the material. More about the definitions below the table.
Material  Tensile Modulus (Young's Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity)  E  (GPa)  Ultimate Tensile Strength  σ_{u}  (MPa)  Yield Strength  σ_{y}  (MPa) 

ABS plastics  1.4  3.1  40  
A53 Seamless and Welded Standard Steel Pipe  Grade A  331  207  
A53 Seamless and Welded Standard Steel Pipe  Grade B  414  241  
A106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe  Grade A  330  205  
A106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe  Grade B  415  240  
A106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe  Grade C  485  275  
A252 Piling Steel Pipe  Grade 1  345  207  
A252 Piling Steel Pipe  Grade 2  414  241  
A252 Piling Steel Pipe  Grade 3  455  310  
A501 Hot Formed Carbon Steel Structural Tubing  Grade A  400  248  
A501 Hot Formed Carbon Steel Structural Tubing  Grade B  483  345  
A523 Cable Circuit Steel Piping  Grade A  331  207  
A523 Cable Circuit Steel Piping  Grade B  414  241  
A618 HotFormed HighStrength LowAlloy Structural Tubing  Grade Ia & Ib  483  345  
A618 HotFormed HighStrength LowAlloy Structural Tubing  Grade II  414  345  
A618 HotFormed HighStrength LowAlloy Structural Tubing  Grade III  448  345  
API 5L Line Pipe  310  1145  175  1048  
Acetals  2.8  65  
Acrylic  3.2  70  
Aluminum Bronze  120  
Aluminum  69  110  95 
Aluminum Alloys  70  
Antimony  78  
Aramid  70  112  
Beryllium (Be)  287  
Beryllium Copper  124  
Bismuth  32  
Bone, compact  18  170 (compression) 

Bone, spongy  76  
Boron  3100  
Brass  102  125  250  
Brass, Naval  100  
Bronze  96  120  
CAB  0.8  
Cadmium  32  
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic  150  
Carbon nanotube, singlewalled  1000  
Cast Iron 4.5% C, ASTM A48  170  
Cellulose, cotton, wood pulp and regenerated  80  240  
Cellulose acetate, molded  12  58  
Cellulose acetate, sheet  30  52  
Cellulose nitrate, celluloid  50  
Chlorinated polyether  1.1  39  
Chlorinated PVC (CPVC)  2.9  
Chromium  248  
Cobalt  207  
Concrete  17  
Concrete, High Strength (compression)  30  40 (compression) 

Copper  117  220  70 
Diamond (C)  1220  
Douglas fir Wood  13  50 (compression) 

Epoxy resins  32  26  85  
Fiberboard, Medium Density  4  
Flax fiber  58  
Glass  50  90  50 (compression) 

Glass reinforced polyester matrix  17  
Gold  74  
Granite  52  
Graphene  1000  
Grey Cast Iron  130  
Hemp fiber  35  
Inconel  214  
Iridium  517  
Iron  210  
Lead  13.8  
Magnesium metal (Mg)  45  
Manganese  159  
Marble  15  
MDF  Mediumdensity fiberboard  4  
Mercury  
Molybdenum (Mo)  329  
Monel Metal  179  
Nickel  170  
Nickel Silver  128  
Nickel Steel  200  
Niobium (Columbium)  103  
Nylon6  2  4  45  90  45 
Nylon66  60  80  
Oak Wood (along grain)  11  
Osmium (Os)  550  
Phenolic cast resins  33  59  
Phenolformaldehyde molding compounds  45  52  
Phosphor Bronze  116  
Pine Wood (along grain)  9  40  
Platinum  147  
Plutonium  97  
Polyacrylonitrile, fibers  200  
Polybenzoxazole  3.5  
Polycarbonates  2.6  52  62  
Polyethylene HDPE (high density)  0.8  15  
Polyethylene Terephthalate, PET  2  2.7  55  
Polyamide  2.5  85  
Polyisoprene, hard rubber  39  
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)  2.4  3.4  
Polyimide aromatics  3.1  68  
Polypropylene, PP  1.5  2  28  36  
Polystyrene, PS  3  3.5  30  100  
Polyethylene, LDPE (low density)  0.11  0.45  
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)  0.4  
Polyurethane cast liquid  10  20  
Polyurethane elastomer  29  55  
Polyvinylchloride (PVC)  2.4  4.1  
Potassium  
Rhodium  290  
Rubber, small strain  0.01  0.1  
Sapphire  435  
Selenium  58  
Silicon  130  185  
Silicon Carbide  450  3440  
Silver  72  
Sodium  
Steel, High Strength Alloy ASTM A514  760  690  
Steel, stainless AISI 302  180  860  502 
Steel, Structural ASTMA36  200  400  250 
Tantalum  186  
Thorium  59  
Tin  47  
Titanium  
Titanium Alloy  105  120  900  730 
Tooth enamel  83  
Tungsten (W)  400  410  
Tungsten Carbide (WC)  450  650  
Uranium  170  
Vanadium  131  
Wrought Iron  190  210  
Wood  
Zinc  83 
 1 Pa (N/m^{2}) = 1x10^{6} N/mm^{2} = 1.4504x10^{4} psi
 1 MPa = 10^{6} Pa (N/m^{2}) = 0.145x10^{3} psi (lb_{f}/in^{2}) = 0.145 ksi
 1 GPa = 10^{9} N/m^{2} = 10^{6} N/cm^{2} = 10^{3} N/mm^{2} = 0.145x10^{6} psi (lb_{f}/in^{2})
 1 Mpsi = 10^{6} psi = 10^{3} ksi
 1 psi (lb/in^{2}) = 0.001 ksi = 144 psf (lb_{f}/ft^{2}) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m^{2}) = 6.895x10^{3} N/mm^{2}
Download and print Tension Unit Converter Chart
Example  Convert between Tension Units
10000 psi can be converted to 0.069 GPa and 10 ksi as indicated in the chart below:
Note!  this online pressure converter can also be used to convert between Tensile Modulus units.
Strain  ε
Strain is the "deformation of a solid due to stress"  change in dimension divided by the original value of the dimension  and can be expressed as
ε = dL / L (1)
where
ε = strain (m/m, in/in)
dL = elongation or compression (offset) of object (m, in)
L = length of object (m, in)
Stress  σ
Stress is force per unit area and can be expressed as
σ = F / A (2)
where
σ = stress (N/m^{2}, lb/in^{2}, psi)
F = applied force (N, lb)
A = stress area of object (m^{2}, in^{2})
 tensile stress  stress that tends to stretch or lengthen the material  acts normal to the stressed area
 compressible stress  stress that tends to compress or shorten the material  acts normal to the stressed area
 shearing stress  stress that tends to shear the material  acts in plane to the stressed area at rightangles to compressible or tensile stress
Young's Modulus  Tensile Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity  E
Young's modulus can be expressed as
E = stress / strain
= σ / ε
= (F / A) / (dL / L) (3)
where
E = Young's Modulus of Elasticity (Pa, N/m^{2}, lb/in^{2}, psi)
 named after the 18thcentury English physician and physicist Thomas Young
Elasticity
Elasticity is a property of an object or material indicating how it will restore it to its original shape after distortion.
A spring is an example of an elastic object  when stretched, it exerts a restoring force which tends to bring it back to its original length. This restoring force is in general proportional to the stretch described by Hooke's Law.
Hooke's Law
It takes about twice as much force to stretch a spring twice as far. That linear dependence of displacement upon the stretching force is called Hooke's law and can be expressed as
F_{s} = k dL (4)
where
F_{s} = force in the spring (N)
k = spring constant (N/m)
dL = elongation of the spring (m)
Note that Hooke's Law can also be applied to materials undergoing three dimensional stress (triaxial loading).
Yield strength  σ_{y}
Yield strength is defined in engineering as the amount of stress (Yield point) that a material can undergo before moving from elastic deformation into plastic deformation.
 Yielding  a material deforms permanently
The Yield Point is in mild or mediumcarbon steel the stress at which a marked increase in deformation occurs without increase in load. In other steels and in nonferrous metals this phenomenon is not observed.
Ultimate Tensile Strength  σ_{u}
The Ultimate Tensile Strength  UTS  of a material is the limit stress at which the material actually breaks, with a sudden release of the stored elastic energy.
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