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# Fixed Pipes - Stress vs. Change in Temperature

With temperature change stress is introduced in fixed pipes. The stress can be calculated as:

σ = α E dt                                   (1)

where

σ = stress (MPa, lb/in2)

α = linear expansion coefficient (m/moK, inch/inchoF)

E = modulus of elasticity of the piping material (MPa, lb/in2)

dt = temperature change from installation temperature (oC, oF)

The stress must not exceed maximum allowable stress for the chosen piping material. Be aware that with frequently temperature changes - the stress cycle (with stress well below the maximum allowable limit) may fatigue the pipe.

### Example - Introduced Stress in a Fixed Pipe when Temperature Changes

A carbon steel pipe with linear expansion coefficient 11.7 10-6 m/moC and modulus of elasticity 29.5 106 psi (203 109 Pa (N/m2), 203000 MPa, 203 GPa) is heated from 0oC to 50oC. The stress introduced in the pipe can be calculated as

σ = (11.7 10-6 m/moC) (203 109 N/m2) ((50oC) - (0oC))

= 119 106 N/m2

= 119  MPa

Depending on the material and the codes used - this may be within maximum allowable stress.

## Related Topics

### • Temperature Expansion

Thermal expansion of pipes and tubes - stainless steel, carbon steel, copper, plastics and more.

## Related Documents

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### Pipes and Tubes - Temperature Expansion

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Temperature expansion coefficients for materials used in pipes and tubes like aluminum, carbon steel, cast iron, PVC, HDPE and more.

### Piping Materials - Temperature Heat Expansion and Cooling Contraction

Expansion and contraction when cast iron, carbon and carbon molybdenum steel, wrought iron, copper, brass and aluminum pipes are heated or cooled.

### Pressfit Pipes - Expansion Loops

Temperature expansion loops with pressfit piping.

### PVC, CPVC, Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel and Fiberglass Pipes - Thermal Expansion Diagrams

Thermal expansion of PVC, CPVC, Carbon and Stainless Steel and Fiberglass pipes.

### Restricted Thermal Expansion - Force and Stress

Stress and force when thermal expansion a pipe, beam or similar is restricted.

### Steam Boiler Shells - Stress vs. Boiler Pressure

Calculate the stress in steam boiler shells caused by steam pressure.

### Steam Pipes - Thermal Expansion

Thermal expansion of steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperature (mm pr. 100 m pipe).

### Steel Pipes - Temperature Expansion

Calculate temperature expansion with carbon steel pipes.

### Steel Pipes - Thermal Expansion Loops

Calculating and sizing steel pipe thermal expansion loops.

### Stress in Thick-Walled Cylinders or Tubes

Radial and tangential stress in thick-walled cylinders or tubes with closed ends - with internal and external pressure.

### Stress in Thin-Walled Cylinders or Tubes

Hoop and longitudinal stress thin-walled tubes or cylinders.

### Thermal Expansion - Linear Expansion Coefficients

Linear temperature expansion coefficients for common materials like aluminum, copper, glass, iron and many more.

### Thermal Expansion of Steam Pipes - (inches)

Expansion of steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperature.

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