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Ethanol - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethanol (also called alcohol or ethyl alcohol). Phase diagram included.

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Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol), C2H 5 OH, is a volatile, flammable , colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor. It is produced via petrochemical processes or naturally by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

Ethanol is most commonly consumed as a popular recreational drug . It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks. It also has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The compound is widely used as a chemical solvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds. Ethanol is also used as a clean-burning fuel source.

The phase diagram of ethanol is shown below the table.

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethanol :
Values are given for liquid at 25 oC /77 o F / 298 K and 1 bara, if not other phase, temperature or pressure given.

For full table with Imperial Units - rotate the screen!

Ethanol - Thermophysical properties
Property Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit
Acidity (pKa 1 ) 15.9
Autoignition temperature 636 K 363 °C 685 °F
Boiling Point 351.39 K 78.2 °C 172.8 °F
Critical density 5.91 mol/dm 3 272 kg/m 3 0.528 slug/ft 3 17.0 lb/ft 3
Critical Pressure 6.25 MPa=MN/m2 62.5 bara 61.7 atm 906 psia=lb f /in 2
Critical temperature 513.9 K 240.8 °C 465.4 °F
Critical Volume 169 cm 3 /mol 0.00367 m 3 /kg 1.89 ft 3 /slug 0.0588 ft 3 /lb
Density (gas) at 0.08 bar 3.15 mol/m 3 0.145 kg/m 3 0.00028 slug/ft 3 0.0091 lb/ft 3
Density (liquid) 17046 mol/m 3 785.3 kg/m 3 1.524 slug/ft 3 49.02 lb/ft 3
Flammable (gas and liquid) yes
Flash point 286 K 13 °C 55 °F
Gas constant (individual) - R 180.5 J/kg K 0.05013 Wh/(kg K) 1079 [ft lbf/slug °R] 33.54 [ft lbf/lb °R]
Gibbs free energy of formation (gas) -168 kJ/mol -3647 kJ/kg -1568 Btu/lb
Specific heat capacity, Cp (isobaric) (gas) 74 J/mol K 1.60 kJ/kg K 0.383 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Specific heat capacity, Cp (liquid) 118 J/mol K 2.57 kJ/kg K 0.614 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Specific heat capacity, Cv (isochoric) (gas) 65 J/mol K 1.42 kJ/kg K 0.339 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Specific heat capacity, Cv (liquid) 100 J/mol K 2.18 kJ/kg K 0.520 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Heat (enthalpy) of combustion (gas) 1336.8 kJ/mol 29017 kJ/kg 12.5 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of formation (gas) -234 kJ/mol -5079 kJ/kg -2184 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of fusion at -173°F/-114°C 4.9 kJ/mol 106 kJ/kg 45.73 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of evaporation 42.32 kJ/mol 919 kJ/kg 394.94 Btu/lb
Ionization potential 10.47 eV
log K OW (Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient) -0.31
Melting point 159.01 K -114.1 °C -173.5 °F
Molecular Weight 46.069 g/mol 0.10156 lb/mol
Solubility in water 1000 mg/ml
Sound velocity in liquid 1139 m/s 3736 ft/s 2551 mi/h
Sound velocity in gas, at 0.08 bara 246 m/s 807 ft/s 551 mi/h
Specific Gravity (gas) (relativ to air) 1.59
Specific Gravity (liquid) (relativ to water) 0.79
Specific Heat Ratio (gas) - Cp/Cv 1.13
Specific Heat Ratio (liquid) - Cp/Cv 1.18
Specific Volume (gas), at 0.08 bar 0.318 m 3 /mol 6.90 m 3 /kg 3554 ft 3 /slug 110 ft 3 /lb
Specific Volume, (liquid) 0.0000587 m 3 /mol 0.00127 m 3 /kg 0.656 ft 3 /slug 0.0204 ft 3 /lb
Standard molar entropy , S° (gas) 283 J/mol K 6.14 kJ/kg K 1.47 Btu/lb °F
Standard molar entropy, S° (liquid) 160 J/mol K 3.47 kJ/kg K 0.83 Btu/lb °F
Surface tension 21.97 dynes/cm 0.02197 N/m
Thermal Conductivity 0.167 W/m K 0.0965 Btu/hr ft °F
Triple point pressure 4.3x10 -10 MPa=MN/m 2 4.3x10 -9 bara 4.24x10 -9 atm 6.24x10 -8 psia=lb f /in 2
Triple point temperature 150.00 K -123.15 °C -189.67 °F
Vapor (saturation) pressure 0.008 MPa=MN/m 2 60.0 mm Hg 0.0790 atm 1.16 psi=lb f /in 2
Viscosity , dynamic (absolute) 1.074 cP 721.7 [lb m /ft s*10-6 ] 22.43 [lb f s/ft2*10-6 ]
Viscosity , kinematic 1.36 cSt 14.6 [ft2/s*10-6 ]

Follow the links below to get values for the listed properties of ethanol at varying pressure and temperature :

See also more about atmospheric pressure , and STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure & NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure ,
as well as Thermophysical properties of: Acetone , Acetylene , Air , Ammonia , Argon , Benzene , Butane , Carbon dioxide , Carbon monoxide , Ethane , Ethylene , Helium , Hydrogen , Hydrogen sulfide , Methane , Methanol , Nitrogen , Oxygen , Pentane , Propane , Toluene , Water and Heavy water, D2O .

Ethanol is a liquid at standard conditions. However, at low temperature and/or very high pressures it becomes a solid.

The phase diagram for ethanol shows the phase behavior with changes in temperature and pressure. The curve between the critical point and the triple point shows the ethanol boiling point with changes in pressure. It also shows the saturation pressure with changes in temperature.

Ethanol phase diagram C

At the critical point there is no change of state when pressure is increased or if heat is added.

The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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