μC = (Ti - To) / Ti (1)
μC = efficiency of the Carnot cycle
Ti = temperature at the engine inlet (K)
To = temperature at engine exhaust (K)
The wider the range of temperature, the more efficient becomes the cycle. The lowest temperature is limited by the temperature of the sink of heat - if it is the atmosphere or the ocean, river or whatever available. Normally the lowest temperature available is in the range 10 - 20 oC. The maximum temperature is limited by the metallurgical strength of the available materials.
Work, heat and energy systems.
The First Law of Thermodynamics simply states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed (conservation of energy). Thus power generation processes and energy sources actually involve conversion of energy from one form to another, rather than creation of energy from nothing.
Entropy and disorder.
Heat transfer when steam condensates.
Gibbs' Dalton's law of the total pressure of a mixture of gases.
The measure of usefulness.
Efficiency is the ratio useful energy output to energy input.
Fluid energy transfer.
Heat vs. work vs. energy.
Energy required to heat up a substance.
Power plants heat rates, thermal efficiencies, capacity factors, load factors, economic efficiencies, operational efficiencies and energy efficiencies.
The efficiency of the Rankine cycle.
The ability of a material to resist flow of heat.
The thermal transmittance U vs. the thermal resistance R.
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