In the discharge on a horizontal 4 inches PVC sewer pipe the distance from the top inside pipe to the water flow is 3 inches (0.25 ft). The inside diameter of the PVC pipe is 4.069 in (0.34 ft).
The discharge can be calculated as
q = 8.69 (1 - (0.25 ft) / (0.34 ft))1.88 (0.34 ft)2.48
= 0.049 ft3/s
Flow metering principles - Orifice, Venturi, Flow Nozzles, Pitot Tubes, Target, Variable Area, Positive Displacement, Turbine, Vortex, Electromagnetic, Ultrasonic Doppler, Ultrasonic Time-of-travel, Mass Coriolis, Mass Thermal, Weir V-notch, Flume Parshall and Sluice Gate flow meters and more.
The purpose of the sanitary drainage system is to remove effluent discharged from plumbing fixtures and other equipment.
A limited comparison of flowmeter principles - regarding service, rangeability, pressure loss, typical accuracy, upstream pipe diameters, viscosity and relative costs.
Geometric relationships like area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic diameter.
Introduction to accuracy in flow measurement devices.
Turndown ratio (Rangeability) can be used to compare flow measurement devices like orifices, venturi meters etc.
An introduction to the different types of fluid flowmeters - Orifices, Venturies, Nozzles, Rotameters, Pitot Tubes, Calorimetrics, Turbine, Vortex, Electromagnetic, Doppler, Ultrasonic, Thermal, Coriolis.
Calculate cross-sectional average velocity flow in open channels.
Weirs can be used to measure flow rates in open channels and rivers - common for water supply and sewage plants.
The orifice, nozzle and venturi flow rate meters makes the use of the Bernoulli Equation to calculate fluid flow rate using pressure difference through obstructions in the flow.
Pitot tubes can be used to measure fluid flow velocities by measuring the difference between static and dynamic pressure in the flow.
Carrying capacities of sewer and wastewater pipes - gpm and liter per second.
Sluice gates can be used to control and measure volume flow rates in open channels and rivers, mainly in connection to hydro power plants.
An basic introduction to the ultrasonic Doppler and Time of Flight Flow Meters.
Convert between volume flow units like gpm, liter/sec, cfm, m3/h.
The vortex shedding frequency created around a bluff body and flow rate.
A manual providing guidance in selecting, managing, inspecting, and maintaining water measurement devices - describes standard methods and devices commonly used to measure irrigation water.
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