Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

This is an AMP page - Open full page! for all features.

Malleability vs. Brittlenes vs. Ductility

Sponsored Links


  • whereby a material can be plastic deformed and shaped when cold

A malleable material can be plastic shaped with hammering or rolling without fracture.

Typical malleable materials:

  • mild steel, gold, lead


  • whereby a material will fracture without appreciable prior plastic deformation

Brittleness is lack of ductility and for a brittle material there is no plastic deformation. The elastic stage is followed by immediate fracture.

Typical brittle materials:

  • glass, concrete, ceramics, stone, gray cast iron


  • whereby a material can be plastic deformed by elongation without fracture

Ductile materials can typically be plastic elongated with more than 15% before they fracture.

Typical ductile materials:

  • copper, mild steel, thermoplastics

Specification of Ductility

Ductility can be specified as percent elongation before rupture as

DL = 100% (Lf - L0) / L0                        (1)


DL = ductility related to elongation (%)

Lf = final length of specimen at fracture  (m, mm, in...)

L0 = original length of specimen (m, mm, in...)

Alternatively ductility can be specified as percent reduction of area as

DA = 100% (A0 - Af) / A0                        (2)


DA = ductility related to reduction of area (%)

Af = final area of specimen at fracture  (m, mm, in...)

A0 = original area of specimen (m, mm, in...)

Sponsored Links

Related Topics

Material Properties

Properties of gases, fluids and solids. Densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.

Related Documents

Brinell Hardness Number - BHN

The Brinell hardness test of metals and alloys.

Cast Iron

The four basic types of cast iron - white iron, gray iron, ductile iron and malleable iron.

Metals - Temperature Expansion Coefficients

Thermal expansion coefficients metals.

Mineral Hardness - Mohs Scale

The Mohs qualitative ordinal scale characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals.

Minerals - Densities

Densities of minerals.

Poisson's Ratio

When a material is stretched in one direction it tends to get thinner in the other two directions.

Poisson's Ratios Metals

Some metals and their Poisson's Ratios.

Polymers - Physical Properties

Densities, tensile strength, elongation, Youngs modulus and Brinell hardness.

Stainless Steels - Identification Tests

Magnetic, spark, hardness and acid identification tests for austenitic, martensitic and ferritic stainless steels.

Stones - Weight and Strength

Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate.

Stress, Strain and Young's Modulus

Stress is force per unit area - strain is the deformation of a solid due to stress.

Sponsored Links

Search Engineering ToolBox

  • the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!

SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro . Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the Sketchup Extension Warehouse!


We don't collect information from our users. Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. Cookies are only used in the browser to improve user experience.

Some of our calculators and applications let you save application data to your local computer. These applications will - due to browser restrictions - send data between your browser and our server. We don't save this data.

Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics. Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected.

AddThis use cookies for handling links to social media. Please read AddThis Privacy for more information.