* Not used below 1250 oC.
Thermocouples are available in different combinations of metals or calibrations. The four most common calibrations are J, K, T and E. Each calibration has a different temperature range and environment, although the maximum temperature varies with the diameter of the wire used in the thermocouple.
Some of the thermocouple types have standardized with calibration tables, color codes and assigned letter-designations. The ASTM Standard E230 provides all the specifications for most of the common industrial grades, including letter designation, color codes (USA only), suggested use limits and the complete voltage versus temperature tables for cold junctions maintained at 32 oF and 0 oC.
There are four "classes" of thermocouples:
The home bodies are the Types E, J, K, N and T. The upper crust are types B, S, and R, platinum all to varying percentages. The exotic class includes several tungsten alloy thermocouples usually designated as Type W (something).
|Instrument||Temperature Range (oF) ||Accuracy|
|Type J probes||32 - 1336||-310 - 1832||1.8 to 7.9oF or 0.4% of reading above 32oF, whichever is greater|
|Type K probes||32 - 2300||-418 - 2507||1.8 to 7.9oF or 0.4% of reading above 32oF, whichever is greater|
|Type T probes||-299 - 700||-418 - 752||0.9 to 3.6oF or 0.4% of reading above 32oF, whichever is greater|
|Type E probes||32 - 1600||32 - 1650||1.8 to 7.9oF or 0.4% of reading above 32oF, whichever is greater|
|Type R probes||32 - 2700||32 - 3210||2.5oF or 0.25% of reading, whichever is greater|
|Type S probes||32 - 2700||32 - 3210||2.5oF or 0.25% of reading, whichever is greater|
- oF = (1.8 x oC) + 32
- oC = (oF - 32) x 0.555
- Kelvin = oC + 273.2
- oRankin = oF + 459.67
Instrumentation and process control systems - design and documentation.
Measurment of temperature - probes, sensors and transmitters.
Relative humidity in moist air can estimated by measuring the dry and wet bulb temperature.
Temperature points that can be used as a reference for calibration
The resultant or globe temperature.
Pt100 electrical resistance temperature sensor - ranging -220 to 750 degrees Celsius.
Thermal resistive sensor - a basic introduction.
The definition of STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure and NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure.
Introduction to temperature - including Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin and Rankine definitions - and an online temperature converter.
Comparing advantages and disadvantages of thermocouples, RTDs and thermistors temperature sensors.
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