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Liquids - Freezing and Melting Points

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For pure compounds the following definitions can be given:

  • Melting point - the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid
  • Freezing point - the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid
  • The melting and freezing point changes with pressure,  but normally they are given at 1 atm.
  • A pure substance has the same freezing and melting points (in practice a small difference between these quantities can be observed).
  • For mixtures of compounds (as petroleum), there are ranges of melting and freezing points versus percent of the mixture melted or frozen.
  • For a mixture, the initial melting point is close to the melting point of the lightest compound in the mixture, while the initial freezing point is close to the freezing point (or melting point) of the heaviest compound in the mixture.
  • Since the melting point increases with molecular weight, for petroleum mixtures the initial freezing point is greater than the initial melting point.

Freezing and melting points of some common liquids at 1 atm:

See also Physical data for hydrocarbons , Melting points of hydrocarbons, alcohols and acids , Physical data for alcohols and carboxylic acids , Physical data for organic sulfur compounds , Physical data for organic nitrogen compounds and Melting and Boiling Point, Density and Solubility in Water for Inorganic Compounds

Liquids - Freezing or Melting Points
FluidFreezing or Melting Point

Acetic acid 290
Acetone 179
Alcohol, allyl 144
Alcohol, ethyl (ethanol) 158.6
Alcohol, isobutyl 165
Alcohol, methyl (methanol) 175.5
Alcohol, propyl 146
Aniline 267
Anisole 235.5
Benzene 278.7
Benzonitrile 260.3
Bromine 265.95
Bromobenzene 242.4
Butane 135
Camphor 452
Carbon Dioxide 194.5
Carbon Disulfide 161.2
Carbon Tetrachloride (Tetrachloromethane) 250.4
Castor Oil 263.2
Chlorobenzene 227.8
Chloroform (Trichloromethane) 209.6
3-Chloropropene (Allyl Chloride) 138.5
Cyclohexane 280
Decane 243.5
Dodecane 247.2
Ether 157
Ethyl acetat 189.4
Ethylene bromide 283
Ethylene Glycol 260.2
Formic acid 281
Trichlorofluoromethane refrigerant R-11 162
Dichlorodifluoromethane refrigerant R-12 115
Glycerine 290.8
n-Heptane 182.5
Hexane 178
Iodine 386.6
Isopentane (2-Methylbutane) 113.1
Linseed oil 253
Mercury 234.13
Methylcyclopentane 130.5
Naphtalene 353
Nitrobenzene 278.7
Nitrogen 63.14
n-Octane 216.4
Pentane 143.3
Phenol 316.2
Propylene 87.9
Propylene glycol 213
Toluene 178
Turpentine 214
Water, Fresh 273
Water, Sea 270.6

T C = T K - 273.16   [°C]

T F = T C * 1.8 + 32  [°F]

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