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# Soil - Earth Weight and Composition

### Approximate Weight

Soil - Weight
Type of SoilApproximate Weight
(lb/ft3)(kg/m3)
Loose earth 75 1200
Rammed earth 100 1600

### Typical Composition

Soil - Composition
ElementApproximate Content (%)
Aluminum 6 - 10
Calcium 1 - 7
Iron 2 - 10
Magnesium 0.1 - 3
Oxygen 44 - 49
Potassium 1.5 - 3
Silicon 22 - 36
Sodium 2.4 - 2.5

### Soil Classification

Soil - Classification
SoilSeeve Size (mm)
Silt 0.002 - 0.06
Sand 0.06 - 2.0
Gravel 2.0 - 60
Cobbles 60 - 200
Boulders 200 -

### Soil Volume Relationships

#### Void Ratio

e = Vv / Vs

= n / (1 - n)             (1)

where

e = void ratio

Vv = Va + Vw = volume of water and air in soil (m3)

Va = volume of air in soil (m3)

Vw = volume of water  in soil (m3)

Vs = volume of solids in soil (m3)

n = porosity

#### Porosity

n = Vv / V

= e / (1 + e)            (2)

where

n = porosity

V = total volume of soil - inclusive water and air (m3)

#### Degree of Saturation

S = Vw / V                      (3)

where

S = degree of saturation

V = total volume of soil - inclusive water and air (m3)

## Related Topics

### • Material Properties

Material properties of gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.

## Related Documents

### Dirt and Mud - Densities

Densities - pound per cubic foot and kilograms per cubic metre - of dirt and mud.

### Earth Pressure Acting on Basement Walls

Calculate lateral earth pressure acting on basement walls.

### Excavation Slopes

Calculating excavation slope.

### Soil - Electrical Resistivity

Types of soil and resistivity.

### Soil - Water Content

Water or moisture content in soil.

### Soil and Rock - Bulk Factors

Soil and rock expansion - or swell - after mining.

### Solids - Densities

Densities of selected solids.

### Trigonometric Functions

Sine, cosine and tangent - the natural trigonometric functions.

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