Underground Pipes  Earth Pressure
Pressure acting on underground pipes due to weight of soil and transport.
The pressure acting on an object in the ground  typical on the outside of a pipe can be calculated as
p = p_{soil} + p_{water} + p_{transport} (1)
where
p = pressure acting on object in the ground (Pa)
p_{soil} = pressure caused by the weight of the soil above the object (Pa)
p_{water} = hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of the water above the object (Pa)
p_{transport} = pressure caused by the transport load on surface of the soil (Pa)
 1 Pa = 10^{6} N/mm^{2} = 10^{3} kPa = 1.450x10^{4} psi (lbf/in^{2})
Pressure caused by soil
p_{soil} = ρ_{s} g (h  h_{w}) + ρ_{sw} g h_{w} (2)
where
ρ_{s} = density of soil above the groundwater (typical 1800  1900 kg/m^{3})
g = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s^{2})
h = depth from surface to object (m)
h_{w} = depth from groundwater level to object (m)
ρ_{sw} = density of soil below groundwater level (reduced due to Buoyancy of soil  typical value 1100 kg/m^{3})
Pressure caused by groundwater
p_{water} = ρ_{w} g h_{w} (3)
where
ρ_{sw} = density water (1000 kg/m^{3})
Pressure caused by transport
The pressure caused by transport depends on the force (weight) on each wheel. The figure below indicates the the pressure at different depths for wheel force 75 kN (7500 kg) with dynamic factor 1.75.
Example  Pressure acting on an Underground Pipe
The pressure acting on pipe at buried at depth 2 m and 2 m below groundwater level can be calculated as
= 28449 Pa
= 28.5 kPa
p_{water} = (1000 kg/m^{3}) (9.81 m/s^{2}) (1 m)
= 9810 Pa
= 9.8 kPa
p_{transport} = aprox. from the diagram  20 kPa
Total pressure
p = (28.5 kPa) + (9.8 kPa) + (20 kPa)
= 58 kPa
 1 kPa = 1 kN/m^{2}
Underground Pressure Calculator
This calculator is based on the equations below and can used to estimate the underground pressure acting on objects relatively smaller than the depth they are buried  typically pipes with diameter less than 3500 mm.
Pressure from transport is calculated for wheel force 75 kN (7500 kg) with dynamic factor 1.75.
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