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Soil and Rock - Bulk Factors

Soil and rock expansion - or swell - after mining.

Soil or rock from the borrow expands when dropped on the lorry or the landfill - or stockpiled. One cubic from the borrow does not translate to one cubic dump.

Soil - expansion from borrow to lorry and dump fill

Bulking or swell factors for some materials:

Soil and Rock - Bulk Factors
MaterialDensity at the Borrow
103
(kg/m3)
Bulking (Swell) Factor
(%)
Basalt 2.4 - 3.1 75 - 80
Clay 1.8 - 2.6 20 - 40
Dolomite 2.8 50 - 60
Earth 20 - 30
Gneiss 2.69 75 - 80
Granite 2.6 - 2.8 75 - 80
Gravel, dry 1.80 20 - 30
Gravel, wet 2.00 20 - 30
Gravel, wet w/clay 50 - 60
Limestone 2.7 -2.8 75 - 80
Loam 15 - 25
Quartz 2.65 75 - 80
Rock 40 - 80
Sand, dry 1.60 20 - 30
Sand, wet 1.95 20 - 30
Sandstone 2.1 - 2.4 75 - 80
Slate 2.6 - 3.3 85 - 90
Soil 1.2 - 1.6 20 - 30
  • 1 kg/m3 = 0.0624 lb/ft3

Example - Swell Factor

After excavation of 300 m3 clay with bulking factor 40% - the clay swells to

(300 m3) (100% + 40%) / 100% = 420 m3 

in the dump.

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