# Flow Measurements

## Flow metering principles - Orifice, Venturi, Flow Nozzles, Pitot Tubes, Target, Variable Area, Positive Displacement, Turbine, Vortex, Electromagnetic, Ultrasonic Doppler, Ultrasonic Time-of-travel, Mass Coriolis, Mass Thermal, Weir V-notch, Flume Parshall and Sluice Gate flow meters and more.

### Bernoulli Equation

Conservation of energy in a non-viscous, incompressible fluid at steady flow.

### California Pipe Flow Metering Method

Calculate the discharge length from the open end of a partially filled horizontal pipe.

### Comparing Flowmeters

A limited comparison of flowmeter principles - regarding service, rangeability, pressure loss, typical accuracy, upstream pipe diameters, viscosity and relative costs.

### Dynamic (Absolute) Viscosity - Converting Chart

Convert dynamic viscosity values between units like *Poiseuille - Poise - centiPoise* and more.

### Electromagnetic Flowmeters

An introduction to electromagnetic flowmeters and their principles.

### Flowmeter - Accuracy

Introduction to accuracy in flow measurement devices.

### Flowmeters - Turndown Ratios

Turndown ratio (Rangeability) can be used to compare flow measurement devices like orifices, venturi meters etc.

### Fluid Flowmeters - Comparing Types

An introduction to the different types of fluid flowmeters - Orifices, Venturies, Nozzles, Rotameters, Pitot Tubes, Calorimetrics, Turbine, Vortex, Electromagnetic, Doppler, Ultrasonic, Thermal, Coriolis.

### Manning's Formula and Gravity Flow

Calculate cross-sectional average velocity flow in open channels.

### Open Channel Weirs - Volume Flow Measurements

Weirs can be used to measure flow rates in open channels and rivers - common for water supply and sewage plants.

### Open Horizontal Pipes - Discharge Length vs. Volume Flow

Discharge length vs. volume flow from water filled horizontal pipes.

### Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi Flow Rate Meters

The orifice, nozzle and venturi flow rate meters makes the use of the Bernoulli Equation to calculate fluid flow rate using pressure difference through obstructions in the flow.

### Pitot Tubes

Pitot tubes can be used to measure fluid flow velocities by measuring the difference between static and dynamic pressure in the flow.

### Sluice Gate - Volume Flow Measurements

Sluice gates can be used to control and measure volume flow rates in open channels and rivers, mainly in connection to hydro power plants.

### Target - Volume Flow Meters

Introduction to the target flow meters principles.

### U-Tube Differential Pressure Manometers

Inclined and vertical u-tube manometers used to measure differential pressure in flow meters like pitot tubes, orifices and nozzles.

### Ultrasonic Doppler and Time of Flight Velocity and Volume Flow Meters

An basic introduction to the ultrasonic Doppler and Time of Flight Flow Meters.

### V-Notch Weirs - Flow Calculator

Online V-Notch weirs flow calculator.

### Velocity-Area Flowmetering

Flow rate or discharge in an open conduit, channel or river can be calculated with the velocity-area principle.

### Vertical Pipes - Discharge Height vs. Volume Flow

Volume flow and discharge height from vertical water pipes.

### Vortex Flowmeters

An introduction to vortex flowmeters.

### Vortex Flowmeters - Shedding Frequency vs. Volume Flow Rate

The vortex shedding frequency created around a bluff body and flow rate.

### Water - Volume Flow Measurement

A manual providing guidance in selecting, managing, inspecting, and maintaining water measurement devices - describes standard methods and devices commonly used to measure irrigation water.

### Weirs Flow Meters - Standards

Standards for weir flow measurements.