s = molar mass, volume or mass of the solution (mole, m 3 , ft 3 , kg, lb m )
In the metric system ppm for mass can be expressed in terms of milligram versus kg where
- 1 mg/kg = 1 part per million
ppm can be also be expressed as
Download and print ppm vs. percent and mg/L chart
Alternatively - mass related units to measure very small concentration levels:
An alternatively mass related unit to measure larger concentration levels is weight percent which can be expressed as
weight percent = 100 m c / m s (2)
The concentration of a component can be measured as mass per unit volume - like mg/liter, mg/cm 3 etc.
Weight of substance added to one unit volume of water to give one part per million (ppm)
= 2.72 pounds per acre-foot
= 1,233 grams per acre-foot
= 1.233 kilograms per acre-foot
= 0.0283 grams per cubic foot
= 0.0000624 pounds per cubic foot
= 0.0038 grams per US gallon
= 0.058419 grains per US gallon
= 0.07016 grains per Imperial gallon
= 1 milligram per liter (mg/L)
= 1 microlitre ( μL ) per liter
= 0.001 gram per litre
= 8.345 pounds per million gallons of water
The concentration of carbon dioxide in air is aprox. 400 ppm . The volume of carbon dioxide in one 1 m 3 of air can be calculated by modifying (1) to
c = ppm s / 10 6
= (400 ppm) (1 m 3 ) / 10 6
= 0.0004 m 3 /m 3
Volume percent can be expressed as volume per unit volume:
percent by volume = 100 v c /(v c + v s ) (3)
v c = volume component
v s = volume solvent
Molarity is the number of moles of solute (substance of interest - pollution, etc.) dissolved in one liter (volume) of the solution.
Molality is the number moles of solute divided by kilograms of solvent.
The SI-system, unit converters, physical constants, drawing scales and more.
Exposure limits for various air contaminants.
Ammonia and health symptoms - smell and threat to life.
Apothecaries' fluid and weight system with ounces, drachms, grains, scruples and more.
Clean rooms virtually free of contaminants like dust or bacteria.
Clean room class limits according ISO Standard 14644-1.
Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] for several gases in water.
The size of dust particles, pollen, bacteria, virus and many more.
Carbonates dissolved in water.
Definitions and examples of how to calculate wt%, molarity and how to prepare dilutions.
The influence of oxygen concentration and temperature on the corrosion of steel pipes.
The efficiency of a ventilation system may be related to temperature and/or pollution concentrations.
Convert between common volume units like cubic metre, cubic feet, cubic inches and more.
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