Average cost comparison formulas for heating fuels:
C e = p e (100000 Btu) / (3412 Btu/ kWh ) (1)
C e = electricity cost per 100000 Btu
p e = electricity price per kWh
C ng = p ng (100000 Btu) / (1028 Btu/ft 3 ) (2)
C ng = natural gas cost per 100000 Btu
p ng = natural gas price per cubic ft.
Propane LP Gas (Liquid Propane Gas)
C lp = p lp (100000 Btu) / (91333 Btu/ gallon ) (3)
C lp = propane gas cost per 100000 Btu
p lp = propane price per gallon
C fo = p fo (100000 Btu) / (140000 Btu/ gallon ) (4)
C fo = fuel oil cost per 100000 Btu
p fo = fuel oil price per gallon
Boiler house topics, fuels like oil, gas, coal, wood - chimneys, safety valves, tanks - combustion efficiency.
Optimizing boilers efficiency is important to minimize fuel consumption and unwanted excess to the environment.
Environmental emission of carbon dioxide CO2 when combustion fuels like coal, oil, natural gas, LPG and bio energy.
Net (low) and gross (high) energy content in fossil and alternative fuels.
Combustion values for fuel gases like natural gas, propane and butane - Btu per cubic feet.
Combustion values in Btu/gal for fuel oils No.1 to No.6.
Combustion air and flue gas for common fuels - coke, oil, wood, natural gas and more.
Autoignition points for fuels and chemicals like butane, coke, hydrogen, petroleum and more.
Emission of Nitrogen Oxides - NOx - with combustion of fuels like oil, coal, propane and more.
Stable and efficient combustion requires correct mixture of fuels and oxygen.
Stoichiometric combustion and excess air.