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Hydraulic Force vs. Pressure and Cylinder Size

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The force produced on the rod side (1) of a double acting hydraulic piston - can be expressed as

F1 = P1 (π (d2 2 - d12) / 4)                                    (1)


F1 = rod force (lb, N)

d1 = rod diameter (in, mm)

d2= piston diameter (in, mm)

P1 = pressure in the cylinder on the rod side (psi, N/mm2)

  • 1 bar = 105 N/m2= 0.1 Nm/mm2

The force produced on the opposite of rod side (2) - can be expressed as

F2= P2(π d2 2 / 4) (2)


F2= rod force (lb, N)

P2= pressure in the cylinder (opposite rod) ( psi, N/mm2)


Hydraulic Force Calculator

Imperial Units

Pressure acting on rod side

Pressure acting on opposite of rod side

Metric Units

Pressure acting on rod side

Pressure acting on opposite of rod side

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Rod Force F2 diagram

- when pressure act on opposite side of rod.

Imperial Units

Metric Units

  • 1 psi (lb/in2) = 144 psf (lbf /ft2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895x10-3 N/mm2= 6.895x10-2 bar
  • 1 N/m2= 1 Pa = 1.4504x10-4 lb/in2= 1x10 -5 bar = 4.03x10-3 in water = 0.336x10-3 ft water = 0.1024 mm water = 0.295x10-3 in mercury = 7.55x10-3 mm mercury = 0.1024 kg/m2= 0.993x10 -5 atm
  • 1 lbf (Pound force) = 4.44822 N = 0.4536 kp
  • 1 N (Newton) = 0.1020 kp = 7.233 pdl = 7.233/32.174 lbf = 0.2248 lbf = 1 (kg m)/s2= 105 dyne = 1/9.80665 kgf
  • 1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm
  • 1 m (meter) = 39.37 in = 100 cm = 1000 mm

Rod Force F1 diagram

- when pressure act on the same side of the rod.

Imperial Units

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