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Geological Time

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Geological Time
Periode - EpochBeginning - End
(106 years)
Cenozoic era
Quaternary Holocene 0 - 0.0115
Pleistocene 0.0115 - 1.81 Homo erectus - the evolution of anatomically modern humans
Tertiary Pliocene 1.81 - 5.3 The first recognizable hominins, the australopithecines, appeared
Mioscene 5.3 - 23 Origin of grass
Oligoscene 23 - 34 Rise of cats, dogs, pigs
Eoscene 34 - 56 Hoofed animals
Paleoscene 56 - 65 Primates
Mesozoic era Cretaceous 645 - 145 Demise of dinosaurs
Jurassic 145 - 200 First birds
Triassic 200 - 251 Many major groups of dinosaurs emerged
Paleozoic era Permian 251 - 299 Flowers, insect polination
Carboniferous 299 - 359 First conifers
Devonian 359 - 416 First vertebrates ashore
Silurian 416 - 444 Spore-bearing plants
Ordovician 444 - 488 Vertebrates appear
Cambrian 488 - 542 Most animal life aquatic
Pre-Cambrian Pre-cambrian III (Proterozoic) 542 - 2500  The first advanced single-celled, eukaryotes and multi-cellular life, first plant, jellyfish
Pre-Cambrian II (Archean) 2500 - 3850 Photosyntetic bacteria
Pre-Cambrian I (Hadean) 3850 - 4600 Earth formed 4600 million years ago
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Yields of different crude oil distillation cuts are plotted as function of whole crude specific gravity. Fractions based on European and North American markets, and the typical differences in crude oil fractionation in the two markets are also shown.

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