1 kW = 0.2843 Refrigeration Ton (RT)
A ton is the amount of heat removed by an air conditioning system that would melt 1 ton (2000 lbs.) of ice in 24 hours. The heat required to melt 1 lb of ice at 32 o F to water is 144 Btu.
1 Ton Refrigeration = (2000 lb) (144 Btu/lb) / (24 hr)
= 12000 Btu/hr
A cooling tower ton is defined as:
1 cooling tower ton = 1 TONS evap = 1 TONS cond x 1.25 = 15000 Btu /h = 3782 k Calories /h = 15826 kJ/h = 4.396 kW
The equivalent ton on the cooling tower side actually rejects about 15000 Btu/h due to the heat-equivalent of the energy needed to drive the chiller's compressor. This equivalent ton is defined as the heat rejection in cooling 3 U.S. gallons/minute (1500 pound/hour) of water 10°F , which amounts to 15000 Btu/hour , or a chiller coefficient-of-performance ( COP ) of 4.0 - a COP equivalent to an energy efficiency ratio ( EER ) of 13.65 .
A water systems heat load in Btu/h can be simplified to:
h = c p ρ q dt
= (1 Btu/lb m o F) ( 8.33 lb m /US gal) q (60 min/h) dt
= 500 q dt (1)
h = heat load (Btu/h)
c p = specific heat, 1 (Btu/lb m o F) for water
ρ = 8.33 (lb m /US gal) for water
q = water volume flow rate (US gal/min)
dt = temperature difference ( o F)
Water flows with 1 gal/min and 10 o F temperature difference. The ton of cooling load can be calculated as:
h = 500 (1 US gal/min) (10 o F)
= 5000 Btu/h
= (5000 Btu/h) / (12000 Btu/ton)
= 0.42 ton
Typical Cooling Loads
|Type of Room||Cooling Load |
(ft 2 /ton)
|Arenas||150 - 200|
|Classroom||200 - 250|
|Clean room||100 - 300|
|Conference room||100 - 200|
|Data room||80 - 100|
|Meeting room||200 - 250|
|Office||300 - 350|
|Residence||600 - 700|
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