# Calculating Cooling Loads

Cooling towers tons pairs the water-cooled chiller tons and the water-cooled condenser tons.

### Chiller Refrigeration Tons

The process of cooling is called refrigeration. For commercial and industrial refrigeration systems most of the world uses the kilowatt (kW) as the basic unit of refrigeration. Some commercial and industrial refrigeration systems are rated in Tons of Refrigeration (TR, tons).

A water-chiller refrigeration * ton * is defined as:

* 1 Refrigeration Ton (RT) = 1 TONS _{ cond } = 12000 Btu /h = 200 Btu /min = 3025.9 k Calories /h = 12661 kJ/h = 3.517 kW *

* 1 kW = 0.2843 Refrigeration Ton (RT) *

A ton is the amount of heat removed by an air conditioning system that would melt * 1 ton (2000 lbs.) * of ice in * 24 hours. The heat required to melt 1 lb of ice at 32 ^{o}F to water is 144 Btu. *

* 1 Ton Refrigeration = (2000 lb) (144 Btu/lb) / (24 hr) *

* = 12000 Btu/hr *

#### Converting between Btu/h and Tons of Refrigeration

Btu/h | Refrigeration Ton | kW |
---|---|---|

6000 | 1/2 | 1.76 |

12000 | 1 | 3.52 |

18000 | 1 1/2 | 5.28 |

24000 | 2 | 7.03 |

30000 | 2 1/2 | 8.79 |

36000 | 3 | 10.6 |

42000 | 3 1/2 | 12.3 |

48000 | 4 | 14.1 |

54000 | 4 1/2 | 15.8 |

60000 | 5 | 17.6 |

### Cooling Tower Tons

A cooling tower ton is defined as:

* 1 cooling tower ton = 1 TONS _{ evap } = 1 TONS _{ cond } x 1.25 = 15000 Btu /h = 3782 k Calories /h = 15826 kJ/h = 4.396 kW *

The equivalent ton on the cooling tower side actually rejects about * 15000 Btu/h * due to the heat-equivalent of the energy needed to drive the chiller's compressor. This equivalent ton is defined as the heat rejection in cooling * 3 U.S. gallons/minute (1500 pound/hour) * of water * 10°F *, which amounts to * 15000 Btu/hour*, or a chiller coefficient-of-performance ( COP ) of * 4.0 * - a COP equivalent to an energy efficiency ratio ( EER ) of * 13.65 *.

### Heat Load and Water Flow

A water systems heat load in * Btu/h * can be simplified to:

h = c_{p}ρ q dt

=(1 Btu/lb_{m}^{o}F) (8.33 lb_{m}/US gal) q(60 min/h) dt

= 500 q dt(1)

where

h= heat load (Btu/h)

c_{p}= specific heat, 1 (Btu/lb_{m}^{o}F) for water

ρ = 8.33 (lb_{m}/US gal) for water

q= water volume flow rate (US gal/min)

dt= temperature difference (^{o}F)

### Example - Water Chiller Cooling

Water flows with * 1 gal/min * and * 10 ^{o}F * temperature difference. The ton of cooling load can be calculated as:

h = 500 (1 US gal/min) (10^{o}F)

= 5000 Btu/h

= (5000 Btu/h) / (12000 Btu/ton)

= 0.42 ton

Typical Cooling Loads

Type of Room | Cooling Load (ft ^{2}/ton) |
---|---|

Arenas | 150 - 200 |

Classroom | 200 - 250 |

Clean room | 100 - 300 |

Conference room | 100 - 200 |

Data room | 80 - 100 |

Meeting room | 200 - 250 |

Office | 300 - 350 |

Residence | 600 - 700 |

## Related Topics

### • Air Conditioning Systems

Design of Air Conditioning systems - heating, cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for thermal comfort.

## Related Documents

### Air Conditioner Efficiency

The ratio between heat removed and power (watt) used - *EER* and *SEER*.

### Chilled Water Systems

Chilled water system equations - evaporator and condenser flow rates.

### Cooling Load - Convert between kW/ton to COP or EER

Convert between cooling load units like kW/ton, COP and EER.

### Cooling Power vs. Airflow and Duct Sizes

Typical relations between cooling power (tons cooling), air flow and duct size

### Cooling Tower Efficiency

Maximum cooling tower efficiency is limited by the cooling air wet-bulb temperature.

### Cooling Water - Pipe Lines

Sizing cooling water pipe lines - maximum allowable flow, velocity and pressure drops.

### Heat Losses from Electrical Equipment

Heat loss from electrical equipment like switch-gear, transformers and variable frequency drives.

### Heat Pumps - Performance and Efficiency Ratings

Performance and efficiency rating of heat pumps.

### Refrigeration Formulas

Calculate compression work, coefficients of performance and more.

### Refrigeration Machinery - Required Ventilation

Ventilation required for refrigeration machinery and compressors in hot areas.

### Water Evaporator and Condenser Equations

Air conditioner heat loads and evaporator and condenser water flow rates.