A weak acid or a weak base only partially dissociates . At equilibrium, both the acid and the conjugate base are present in solution
Weak acid: AH + H 2 O ↔ A - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq)
Weak base: BOH + H 2 O ↔ B + (aq) + OH - (aq) or
B + H 2 O ↔ BH + (aq) + OH - (aq)
Examples of weak acids and bases are given in the table below.
Stronger acids have a larger acid dissociation constant (Ka) and a smaller logarithmic constant (pKa = −log Ka) than weaker acids. The stronger an acid is, the more easily it loses a proton, H+.
Two key factors that contribute to the ease of deprotonation are the polarity of the H—A bond and the size of atom A, which determines the strength of the H—A bond. Acid strengths also depend on the stability of the conjugate base.
See also Acid-base properties of aqueous solutions of salts with ions from both acids and bases , Buffer solutions , pKa of inorganic acids and bases , pKa of phenols, alcohols and carboxylic acids and pKa of amines, diamines and cyclic organic nitrogen compounds , as well as Acid and base pH indicators or pH values of some solutions of acids and bases .
| Stong Acids ||Strong Bases|
|Hydrobromic acid||HBr||Barium hydroxide||Ba(OH) 2|
|Hydrochloric acid||HCl||Calsium hydroxide||Ca(OH) 2|
|Hydroiodic acid||HI||Lithium hydroxide||LiOH|
|Nitric acid||HNO 3||Potassium hydroxide||KOH|
|Perchloric acid||HClO 4||Sodium hydroxide||NaOH|
|Sulfuric acid||H 2 SO 4||Strontium hydroxide||Sr(OH) 2|
| Weak acids || Weak bases |
|Acetic acid||CH 3 COOH||Ammonia||NH 3|
|Carbonic acid||H 2 CO 3||Diethylamine||(CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH|
|Formic acid||CHOOH||Methylamine||CH 3 NH 2|
|Hydrocyanic acid||HCN||Sodium bicarbonate||NaHCO 3|
|Phosphoric acid||H 3 PO 4|
Material properties of gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.
pH range vs. color change for acid and base indicators - together with pKa and structures of the indicators.
pH values of acids like sulfuric, acetic and more..
Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, pKa-values, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in molecules are given for 150 different alcohols and acids.
Values for the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant, pKa, of the conjugated acid of amines, diamines and cyclic organic nitrogen compounds, shown together with the molecular structure of the acids.
Salts contains ions that may affect the pH in aqueous solutions in both acidic and basic directions.
pH values for bases like sodium hydroxide, ammonia and more.
Definitions, explanations and examples of how to make buffer solutions.
pH in common food products - like apples, butter, wines and more.
Values for the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant, pKa, of inorganic acids and bases, as well as hydrated metal ions.
Introduction to pH - the acidic and basic (alkaline) definition.
For oxygen containing organic compounds this is given: pKa (the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant), molecular structures, molar weights, density and melting and boiling points.
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