Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

Static Pressure in a HVAC System

A minimum static pressure is required in a HVAC system to keep the water in the highest levels of the system.

The static pressure in most HVAC systems is a result of the height of the building plus a cushion at the top of the building. In general the cushion is around 5 - 10 psi (lb/in2) or 10 - 20 ft (3 - 6 m) water column.

Static Pressure as Head (ft, m)

The static pressure can be expressed as head:

hs = hb + hc                                                     (1)


hs = static head (ft, m)

hb = elevation at the top of the building (ft, m)

hc = cushion required at the top of the building (ft, m)

Static Pressure as Pressure - (psi)

ps = hb + hc / (144 /γ)                                                 (2)


ps = static pressure (psig)

γ = specific weight of water at the operating temperature (lb/ft3)

Example - Static Pressure in a Water Heating System

The static head of a 190 ft tall building and cushion head 10 ft can be expressed as calculated as:

hs = (200 ft) + (20 ft)

    = 220 ft

With water operating temperature 60oF and specific weight 62.4 lb/ft3 - the static pressure can be expressed as:

ps = (200 ft) + (20 ft) / (144 / (62.4 lb/ft3) )

    = 95.3 psig

Related Topics

  • Heating Systems

    Design of heating systems - capacities and design of boilers, pipelines, heat exchangers, expansion systems and more.

Related Documents


Search is the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox.

Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

3D Engineering ToolBox Extension to SketchUp - add parametric components to your SketchUp model

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with older versions of the amazing SketchUp Make and the newer "up to date" SketchUp Pro . Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp Make/Pro from the Extension Warehouse !

Translate this Page

Translate this page to Your Own Language .

About the Engineering ToolBox!

Privacy Policy

We don't collect information from our users. More about

We use a third-party to provide monetization technologies for our site. You can review their privacy and cookie policy here.

You can change your privacy settings by clicking the following button: .


This page can be cited as

  • The Engineering ToolBox (2004). Static Pressure in a HVAC System. [online] Available at: [Accessed Day Month Year].

Modify the access date according your visit.

3D Engineering ToolBox - draw and model technical applications! 2D Engineering ToolBox - create and share online diagram drawing templates! Engineering ToolBox Apps - mobile online and offline engineering applications!

Unit Converter