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Solar System Constants

Properties and data for the Sun, the Earth and the Moon.

Earth

  • mass : 5.98 x 10 24 kg
  • radius : 6.38 x 106 m
  • period of orbit : 365.3 days
  • radius of orbit : 149 x 109 m
  • acceleration of gravity : 9.81 m/s2= 35 kph/s = 22 mph/s = 32 feet/s2
  • escape velocity : 11.2 x 103 m/s
  • mean surface temperature : 288 K
  • surface pressure : 1.014 bar

Jupiter

  • mass : 1.9 x 10 27 kg
  • radius : 71.5 x 106 m
  • acceleration of gravity : 25 m/s2
  • escape velocity : 57.5 x 103 m/s
  • mean surface temperature : 163 K
  • surface pressure : >> 1000 bar

Mars

  • mass : 6.42 x 10 23 kg
  • radius : 3.4 x 106 m
  • acceleration of gravity : 3.7 m/s2
  • escape velocity : 5.1 x 103 m/s
  • mean surface temperature : 208 K
  • surface pressure : 0.007 bar

Mercury

  • mass : 3.3 x 10 23 kg
  • radius : 2.44 x 106 m
  • acceleration of gravity : 3.7 m/s2<
  • escape velocity : 4.3 x 103 m/s
  • mean surface temperature : 440 K
  • surface pressure : 1 10 -15 bar

Moon

  • mass : 7.35 x 10 22 kg
  • radius : 1.74 x 106 m
  • period of orbit : 27.3 days
  • radius of orbit : 0.38 x 109 m
  • acceleration of gravity : aprox. 1/6 of acceleration of gravity on the earth ≈ 1.6 m/s2
  • escape velocity : 2.4 x 103 m/s

Neptune

  • mass : 1.02 x 10 26 kg
  • radius : 24.8 x 106 m
  • acceleration of gravity : 11 m/s2
  • escape velocity : 24.4 x 103 m/s
  • mean surface temperature : 73 K

Pluto

  • mass : 1.30 x 10 22 kg
  • radius : 1.18 x 106 m
  • acceleration of gravity : 0.62 m/s2
  • mean surface temperature : 48 K

Saturn

  • mass : 5.69 x 10 26 kg
  • radius : 60.3 x 106 m
  • acceleration of gravity : 10 m/s2
  • escape velocity : 35.4 x 103 m/s
  • mean surface temperature : 133 K
  • surface pressure : >> 1000 bar

Sun

  • mass : 1.989 x 10 30 kg
  • diameter : 1390 x 106 m
  • mean distance from the earth to the sun : approximately 1.5 × 10 11 m, the Astronomical Unit - AU
  • mean distance from the sun to Mars : 1.5 AU
  • mean distance from the sun to Jupiter: 5.2 AU
  • mean distance from the sun to Pluto: 40 AU
  • distance to t he star nearest the sun Proxima Centauri: 270,000 AU
  • acceleration of gravity : 270 m/s2
  • escape velocity : 618 x 103 m/s

Uranus

  • mass : 8.68 x 10 25 kg
  • radius : 25.6 x 106 m
  • acceleration of gravity : 8.9 m/s2
  • escape velocity : 21.9 x 103 m/s
  • mean surface temperature : 78 K
  • surface pressure : >> 1000 bar

Venus

  • mass : 4.87 x 10 24 kg
  • radius : 6.05 x 106 m
  • acceleration of gravity : 8.9 m/s2
  • escape velocity : 10.3 x 103 m/s
  • mean surface temperature : 737 K
  • surface pressure : 90 bar

Outside the Solar System

  • mass of a neutron star : 2.8 - 6 x 10 30 kg
  • mass of a black hole : > 6 x 10 30 kg
  • mass of the Milky Way : 1.5 - 2 x 10 42 kg
  • mass of the observable university : ≈ 10 53 kg

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